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The Age of Reason

The English Civil War, The Enlightenment, & the Scientific Revolution

TermDefinition
Divine Right the idea that monarchs recieved their authority from God, and ruled their dominions in his name. So if you were to question the monarchs , you were to question God.
Absolute Ruler its a ruler who would have power over all people. they would have the ability to create laws and serve ass judge jury, and executioner; also the ability to grant lands on which people lived and tax everything on the land
Louis XIV (the Sun King) he is from France. He revoked the Edict of Nantes forcing all French to be Catholic.
Peter I (the Great) he is from France forced Russia to Westernize, he forced Russian nobles to shave their beards and instituted heavy taxes to build a new capital in his name (St.Petersburg)
Versailes Palace Louis XIV instituted heavy taxes to finance the Palace of Versailles as a symbol of power.
English Civil War was a series of conflicts between the Roundheads and the Cavaliers. The Roundheads won the English Civil War.
Roundheads the leader of the Roundheads was Oliver Cromwell
Cavaliers The forces of King Charles I
King Charles I He was leaders of the Cavaliers. Parliament dismisses him for his abuse of power.Later, he gets executed by Cromwell.
King Charles II With the dissatisfaction of Cromwell's rule causes Parliament to invite King Charles II to retake the English throne.
King James II King Charles heir James II, unlike his father, feels no obligation to Parliament and tries to rule as an absolute monarch under "divine right" once again as a Catholic monarch.
William & Mary Parliament invites James II's Protestant daughter Mary II and her husband William to take the throne in James II's place. They also sign an English bill of Rights in 1689.
Constitutional or limited monarchy M & W signing English Bill of Rights created a constitutional /limited monarchy in which Parliament has greater power than the monarch & the law is "common law" is not based on social status but the courts rulings ( are for all people).Current govt today.
Period of the "restoration of the Monarchy" When the dissatisfaction of Cromwell's rule causes Parliament to invite King Charles II to retake the throne. Also, James II tries to rule as an absolute monarch under "divine right" once again as a Catholic monarch.
Oliver Cromwell He was leader of the Roundheads. Oliver Cromwell executes King Charles I and he establishes the English Commonwealth. He also imposes a strict rule based on Purtitan religious standards.
The Commonwealth Oliver Cromwell executes King Charles I and he establishes the English Commonwealth hence " The Commonwealth". He also imposes a strict rule based on Purtitan religious standards.
The Glorious Revolution Parliament invites Mary II and her husband William to take the throne in James II's place. They also sign an English bill of Rights in 1689 which creates a constitutional/limited monarchy which is the government they have till this day.
The Enlightenment It applied reason to understanding the human society, particularly in the areas of government. Also, belief in using reason to justify issues of law and government. I stimulated religious tolerance
The Scientific Revolution It had an emphasis on reason and systematic observation. Formulation of the scientific method. Expansion of scientific knowledge.
Thomas Hobbes He believed in the "state of nature" humans existed in a primitive and brutal state. Therefore, they had eventually consented to the formation a government; this government should be absolute in its power in order to create order.
John Locke He believed people are capable of governing themselves. However, as groups of people grow, life gets more complicated. Therefore, groups of people created a government only to protect their natural rights: life, liberty, & property.
Montesquieu He thought the best way to end absolutism was to create a separation of powers within the government. For example , the three branches which include: the Legislative, the Judicial, and the Executive branch.
Jean - Jacques Rousseau Government is a contract freely entered into between rulers and the people. Both sides must fulfill their obligations to one another.
Voltaire Religious toleration should triumph over religious fanticism, separation of church and state
Leviathan Thomas Hobbes wrote Leviathan. Saying that, this government should be absolute in its power in order to create order.
Two Treatises on Government John Locke wrote Two Treatises on Government.Stating, groups of people created a government only to protect their natural rights: life, liberty, & property.
In the Spirit of Laws Montesquieu wrote In Spirit of Laws which stated that the best way to end absolutism was to create a separation of powers within the government.
The Social Contract Jean-Jacques wrote The Social Contract. which stated that both sides; people and rulers must fulfill their obligations to one another.
Nicolaus Copernicus Heliocentric Theory - Copernicus published the discovery that the sun was the center of the solar system, not the the Earth revolves around the sun ( but he did it after he died.
Johannes Kepler Published the idea planetary motion is in the form of elliptical orbits around the sun.
Galileo Galilei Used telescope to confirm heliocentric theory when faced with prosecution by the Court of Inquisitions.
Sir Issac Newton Formulated the laws of gravity, which helped to explain Kepler's theory of planetary motion as orbits depend on the gravtational force exerted by the mass of an objects's like the sun and a planet.
William Harvey Discovered blood circulates throughout the body in a closed system.
Johann Sebastian Bach was prominent Baroque composer
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a prominent Classical composer
Eugene de la Croix was a painter who contributes to Romanticism, an artistic movement focused on the beauty of nature and exposing human emotion.
Romanticism an artistic movement focused on the beauty of nature and exposing human emotion.
Miguel de Cerantes helped to develop a new form of literature, the novel, with his famous work Don Quixote.
New Model Army The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration.
English Bill of Rights helped create a constitutional monarchy, which is England's form of government today.
Created by: official.sharon