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The Age of Reason

The English Civil War, Enlightment & the Scientific Revolution

TermDefinition
Divine Right The idea that the monarchs had received their authority from God and that they ruled their dominion in "His" name. Therefore anyone who questioned the authority of the monarchs was questioning the authority of God.
Absolute Ruler A ruler who normally has all power.
Louis XIV (the Sun King) An absolute monarch of France who revoked the Edict of Nantes forcing the French to be Catholic. In addition, he instituted heavy taxes to finance the Palace of Versailles as a symbol of his power.
Peter I (the Great ) An absolute monarch of Russia who forced Russia to westernize. He also forced Russian nobles to shave their beards and also instituted heavy taxes to build a new capital in his name "St. Petersburg" and create a modern western military.
Versailles Palace Building created by Louis XIV as a symbol of his power.
English Civil War A war between King Charles forces (Cavaliers) and the forces of Parliament (Roundheads) over the king's abuse of power.
Roundheads The Roundheads were Parliament who defeated King Charles I and his forces in the English Civil War.
Cavaliers The Cavaliers were King Charles I forces who lost to the Roundheads in the English Civil War.
King Charles I King of England who was the leader of the Cavaliers when they lost in the English Civil War leading to his execution.
King Charles II Invited to retake the English throne after Parliaments dissatisfaction with Cromwell's rule.
King James II King Charles II heir who felt no obligation to Parliament and tried to rule as an absolute monarch under "divine right" once again as a Catholic monarch.
William and Mary Mary was James II protestant daughter and her husband was William. They were invited to take the throne in James II place. They signed the English Bill of rights in 1689 creating a constitutional/limited monarchy.
Constitutional or Limited Monarchy The monarchy that came in when William and Mary signed the English Bill of Rights. This gave Parliament greater power than the monarchy which is also the "common law."
Period of the "Restoration of the Monarchy" When Charles II took the throne, but later taken over by heir James II.
Oliver Cromwell The leader of Parliament (Roundheads) who led his army to victory in the English Civil War. He executed King Charles I and established the English commonwealth. Imposed strict rule by Puritan religious standards.
The Commonwealth The new government established by Cromwell. Was really strict religious rule which dissatisfied everyone.
The Glorious Revolution When William and Mary came to take the thrown and created a "constitutional"/"limited" monarchy. Still in use today.
The Enlightenment Reason to understanding the human society, mainly in law and government. Belief human progress is possible through scientific knowledge and reason. Stimulated religious tolerance. Fueled democratic revolutions around the world.
The Scientific Revolution Emphasis on reason and systematic observation. Formed the scientific method. Expansion of scientific knowledge. Belief the world could be improved/ progress could be made through scientific knowledge.
Thomas Hobbes Wrote "Leviathan." believed in state of nature (primitive and brutal). People eventually consented to the formation of a government for their own protection. Government should be absolute in power to create and preserve power.
John Locke Wrote "Two Treaties on Government." Believed people are capable of governing themselves. As life got more complicated people formed government ONLY to protect natural rights (life, liberty, and property).
Montesquieu Wrote "The Spirit of Laws." Thought the best way to end absolutism was to create a separation of powers within the government.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Was with the "Social Contract." The government was a contract freely entered into between rulers and the people. Both sides must fulfill their obligations to one another.
Voltaire "Religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of church and state."
Leviathan Written by Thomas Hobbes. He believed "in the state of nature" humans existed in a primitive and brutal state. Eventually, people consented to the formation of a government for their own protection. Government should be absolute in its power to have order
Two Treatises on Government Written by John Locke. Believed people are capable of governing themselves. Eventually groups formed governments ONLY to protect natural rights. Citizens duty to revolt government wo takes it away.
In the Spirit of Laws Written by Montesquieu. He thought the best way to end absolutism was to create a separation of powers within the government.
The Social Contract Was written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau stated that the government is a contract freely entered between the rulers and the people. Also, both sides must fulfill their obligations to one another.
Nicolaus Copernicus Heliocentric Theory - Copernicus posthumously published the discovery that the sun was the center of the solar system, not the earth
Johannes Kepler Published the idea that planetary motion is in the form of elliptical orbits around the sun.
Galileo Galilei Used the telescope to confirm heliocentric theory, but forced to recant his theory when faced with prosecution by the court of Inquisition.
Sir Isaac Newton Used the telescope to confirm the heliocentric theory. Forced to recant his theory when he was threatened with prosecution by the Court of Inquisition.
William Harvey Discovered that blood circulates throughout the body in a closed system.
Johann Sebastian Bach Prominent baroque composer.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Prominent classical composer.
Eugene de la Croix A painter who contributed to Romanticism.
Romanticism Movement focused on the beauty of nature and exposing human emotion.
Miguel de Cervantes Helped develop a new form of literature, the novel, with Don Quixote, one of his most famous works.
New Model Army A well-trained army led by Oliver Cromwell.
English Bill of Rights Bill that William and Mary signed when they took the throne. Promised many things.
Created by: JXR01