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Female Repro System

Female Reproductive System Chapter 17

Female Reproductive System responsible for producing an ovum on a regular cycle, providing a place for fertilization, implantation of the embryo, and nourishing the fetus until it is ready for birth
Ovaries Primary Sex Organs
Accessory Organs Uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genitalia
Accessory Glands produce mucus
Four primary internal sex organs ovaries Fallopian tubes uterus vagina
The Ovaries Located on each side of uterus (2) Oval in shape, about 3.5 cm long, 2 cm wide, and 1 cm thick Held in position by ligaments composed of hundreds of sac-like structures called follicles
Tunica albuginea Connective tissue layer covering the ovarian cortex Single layered germinal epithelium overlying it
Outer cortex Stroma = connective tissue Contains ovarian follicles
Inner medulla Dense connective tissue Contains all the lymphatics, nerves and vasculature of the ovary
Ovarian follicles is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries. It secretes hormones that influence stages of the menstrual cycle
Primary follicle An oocyte, or an immature egg cell. Follicular cells, which produce the female reproductive hormones
Oogenesis (700,000 produced) Before birth, mitosis occurs inside the ovaries. This produces all the oocytes the woman will need in her lifetime. These oocytes will not be released until puberty, when the brain releases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
The Functions of Estrogen Development of female secondary sex characteristics Breast development, pubic hair, fat deposits, widening of the pelvic bone Enlargement of Uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genitalia
Menstrual phase Endometrial lining sheds along with blood and mucus Ovarian follicles begin development
Preovulatory or proliferative phase Endometrium rapidly regenerates and blood supply increases Secondary follicle matures into graafian follicle Ovulation = rupturing of graafian follicle
Postovulatory or secretory phase Uterine glands produce glycoproteins Corpus luteum develops Secretes estrogen and progesterone
Ovulation Cycle The mature egg cell, called an ovum, begins travelling down the fallopian tubes, heading towards the uterus. ovum enters the nearest open end of 1 of 2 fallopian tubes
Fallopian Tube Transport The ovum is gradually moved towards the uterus by the movement of cilia. The ovum lives for about 24 hours, so fertilization must occur here
The Uterine or Fallopian Tubes Aka oviducts or salpinges Transport ova to the uterus Cilia sweep an ovum into uterine tube Egg moved by peristalsis toward uterus Fertilization occurs in upper third of tube
Fallopian tubes Narrow, smooth, and muscular tubes About 10 cm long Ciliated epithelium Narrow isthmus of each tube opens directly into the uterus.
Ampulla he second portion of the fallopian tube. It is an intermediate dilated portion, which curves over the ovary. It is the most common site of human fertilization
The Uterus 4 Main Functions Receiving the egg. Attaching to and holding the egg. Nourishing the egg as it grows into a fetus. Ejecting the fetus at birth
The Uterus (Fundus) Site of menstruation, egg implantation, and labor; located between the bladder and the rectum; small muscular pear shaped organ; It is held in place by various ligaments
broad ligaments of uterus (2) ligaments; flat sheet of peritoneum; partition the pelvic cavity and suspend the uterus
Cervix narrow inferior portion that opens into vagina via external os
Cervical canal interior of the cervix
Uterine cavity interior of the body
Uterine wall (3 tissue layers) endometrium (innermost) myometrium (middle) perimetrium (outermost)
Isthmus junction between body and cervix
Fundus dome-shape portion above uterine tubes
The Vagina Muscular tube about 3 inches long Passes from the cervical opening (os) of the uterus to the vulva and outside the body Passageway for menstrual flow Receptacle for the penis Lower portion of birth canal
Fornix recess that surrounds vaginal attachment to cervix
Vulva external genitalia
Labia majora and minora
Clitoris erectile tissue
Vestibule vaginal and urethral orifices
Vestibular glands Skene’s (lesser vestibular) and Bartholin’s (greater vestibular)
Vulva consists of mons pubis... pad of fatty tissue covering the symphysis pubis
Labia majora 2 longitudinal folds of skin made of adipose and muscular tissue. continuous with mons pubis => form the perineum (area between the thighs to the anus). hairy contain sebaceous glands, which secrete a greasy, lubricating substance
Labia minora 2 smaller longitudinal folds between the labia majora hairless; contain sebaceous glands form the prepuce (skin fold) covering clitoris
The Perineum Diamond-shaped region at inferior end of trunk between buttocks and thighs Divided into Anterior urogenital triangle containing external genitalia Posterior anal triangle containing anus
Mammary Glands Modified sweat glands Produce and secrete milk in females for nourishment of infants (a process called lactation) Contain 15 to 20 lobes with lobules
Lobules contain milk-secreting cells
Areola circular pigmented area around nipple (erectile tissue)
Female Reproductive System Overview Reproduction Secretes hormones that support secondary sex characteristic changes Secretes hormones that sustain pregnancy should fertilization occur
Amenorrhea Absence of menstrual flow
Dysmenorrhea Painful menstrual flow
Menorrhagia Abnormally long or very heavy menstrual periods
Metrorrhagia Uterine bleeding at times other than the menstrual period
Oligomenorrhea Abnormally light or infrequent menstruation
Cervical Carcinoma Malignant tumor of the cervix Symptoms include bleeding between menstrual periods, after sexual intercourse, after menopause, and an abnormal Pap smear
Endometriosis Presence and growth of endometrial tissue in areas outside the endometrium (lining of the uterus) Generally found in abdominal cavity
Leiomyoma Benign, smooth muscle tumor of the uterus
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Infection of the fallopian tubes Also known as salpingitis
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Symptoms Fever, chills, malaise (general feeling of discomfort) abdominal tenderness, rebound tenderness, backache Abnormal vaginal discharge that is yellow or green in color or foul-smelling Painful urination, pain during intercourse
Cystic Disorders: Cysts Benign, globular sacs (cysts) that form on or near the ovaries May be fluid filled or may contain semisolid materials
Cystic Disorders: Fibrocystic Breast Disease Presence of single or multiple fluid-filled cysts that are palpable in the breasts Cysts are benign and fluctuate in size with the menstrual period
Cervicitis Acute or chronic inflammation of the uterine cervix
Cystocele Herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina
Endometrial Carcinoma Malignant tumor of the inner lining of the uterus Also known as adenocarcinoma of the uterus
Carcinoma of the Breast Malignant tumor of the breast tissue Most common type (ductal carcinoma) originates in the mammary ducts Has ability to invade surrounding tissue if not detected early enough
Fibroid Tumor A benign, fibrous tumor of the uterus
Ovarian Carcinoma Malignant tumor of the ovaries, most commonly occurring in women in their 50s Rarely detected in early stage
Vaginitis Inflammation of the vagina and the vulva
Dilation and curettage Dilation or widening of the cervical canal with a dilator, followed by scraping of the uterine lining with a curet Also termed D&C
Cone biopsy Surgical removal of a cone-shaped segment of the cervix for diagnosis or treatment Also known as conization
Cryosurgery Destruction of tissue by rapid freezing with substances such as liquid nitrogen
Endometrial biopsy Invasive test for obtaining a sample of endometrial tissue with a small curet for examination
Aspiration biopsy Invasive procedure in which a needle is inserted into an area of the body, such as the breast Withdraws tissue or fluid sample for microscopic examination and diagnosis
Breast self-examination Procedure in which the woman examines her breasts and surrounding tissue for evidence of any changes that could indicate the possibility of malignancy
Mammography Process of examining with X-ray the soft tissue of the breast to detect various benign and/or malignant growths before they can be felt
Lumpectomy a surgical operation in which a lump is removed from the breast, typically when cancer is present but has not spread
Hysterosalpingography X-ray of the uterus and the fallopian tubes by injecting a contrast material into these structures
Culdocentesis Surgical puncture through the posterior wall of the vagina into the cul-de-sac to withdraw intraperitoneal fluid for examination Checking for evidence of inflammation, purulent drainage, bleeding, ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, or ovarian malignancy
Colposcopy Visual examination of the vagina and cervix with a colposcope Lighted binocular microscope used for direct examination of the surfaces of the vagina and cervix
Laparoscopy Process of viewing the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope
Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) Procedure used to remove abnormal cells from the surface of the cervix using a thin wire loop that acts like a scalpel Painless electrical current passes through the loop as it cuts away a thin layer of surface cells from the cervix
Papanicolaou (Pap) smear Microscopic examination of cells scraped from within the cervix, from around the cervix, and from the posterior part of the vagina to test for cervical cancer Also called Pap test
Liquid-based Pap (LBP) Collecting a tissue sample from the endocervix and the exocervix with a sampling device that is placed directly into a liquid fixative instead of being spread onto a glass slide Process provides immediate fixation and improves specimen adequacy
Pelvic ultrasound Noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis
Pelvimetry Process of measuring the female pelvis, manually or by X-ray, to determine its adequacy for childbearing
Created by: wallace263
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