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Male Repro System

Male Reproductive System Chapter 16

Primary Function of Reproductive System perpetuate the species, reproduction and meiosis produces sex cells
Reproduction process by which genetic material is passed from one generation to the next
Meiosis produces sex cells
Gonads the primary sex organs; produce gametes, or sex cells, and sex hormones
Testes Male Gonads; produce sperm and male sex hormones
Sperm Male Gametes
Ovaries "egg sacs" Female Gonads
Ova (eggs) Female Gamates
Main Structures of Male Reproductive System Testes Reproductive ducts Accessory reproductive glands Supporting structures (scrotum, penis, spermatic cord)
Accessory glands produce secretions
Accessory organs scrotum
Penis transporting and supporting structure
Scrotum Pouch of skin, sac-like structure Outpouching of abdominal wall Supports the testes Divided internally by a septum  2 sacs Each sac contains a testis, epididymis, and the lower part of a spermatic cord. Scrotal sac elevates and descends
The Testes 2 testes separated by a longitudinal median septum; Contained in scrotum; Cremaster and dartos muscles flex (pulling scrotum towards midline) or relax to regulate testicular temperature; testes divided into lobules; Tunica albuginea: capsule covering
Testicular lobules Convoluted seminiferous tubules: site of spermatogenesis (spermatozoa production) Rete testis and efferent ductules: sperm maturation Sperm leaves the testes via the epididymis.
Spermatogenesis Spermatogonia > primary spermatocytes > secondary spermatocytes > spermatids > spermatozoa
Sertoli cells supply sperm cells with nutrients
Interstitial cells of Leydig produce testosterone
The anatomy of spermatozoa 300 million produced daily; Anatomy Head: contains genetic material and acrosome; Acrosome has enzymes that aid sperm in penetrating covering of ovum; Middle piece: contains mitochondria; Tail: propels sperm
The Functions of Testosterone Controls development, growth, and maintenance of male sex organs Stimulates muscle buildup and bone development Causes sperm maturation Causes thyroid cartilage enlargement Produces body hair patterns
The Ducts of the System Seminiferous tubules, Rete testis, Ductus epididymis, Vas deferens, Urethra
Seminiferous tubules transport sperm cells
Rete testis network of ducts
Ductus epididymis site of sperm cell maturation; Coiled tube, about 20 feet (or 6-6.5 meters); Sperm spends about 3 weeks maturing here; Stores sperm (from efferent ductules) before ejaculation
Epididymis located on posterior border of testis
Vas deferens Enclosed in spermatic duct (until it reaches the abdominal cavity) Spermatic cord includes blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves
Ejaculatory duct ejects spermatozoa into urethra
Urethra terminal duct; Prostatic urethra, cavernous urethra, urethral orifice
The Accessory Glands Secrete additives to strengthen and protect sperm, and assist in sperm motility; Seminal Vesicles, Prostate Gland, Bulbourethral Glands
Seminal vesicles Located beneath the bladder Produce viscous part of semen (yellow, sticky and alkaline substance) Seminal vesicles + vas deferens = ejaculatory duct
Prostate gland Surrounds the urethra at the base of the bladder Produces fluid part of semen (thin, milky, alkaline substance) One gland with many small glands and muscle fibers enclosed in a dense connective tissue.
Bulbourethral glands Aka Cowper glands Pea size, located inferior to the prostate Produce mucus and secrete it into the urethra prior to ejaculation Coats urethral lining to protect sperm
Semen Mixture of sperm cells and secretions Provides energy to the sperm via fructose Neutralizes acidity of vagina Acts as a transport medium Contains enzymes that activate sperm Average volume is 2.5 to 6 mL Seminalplasmin: destroys certain bacteria
Seminalplasmin destroys certain bacteria
The Penis Delivers spermatozoa to female reproductive tract 3 cylindrical masses of erectile tissue Two corpora cavernosa laterally Corpus spongiosum medially distal portion (end of shaft) = glans penis
Prepuce loose skin covering glans penis; Aka foreskin
Circumcision removal of prepuce
The urethral opening, or external meatus, ... is used to excrete both urine and seminal fluid
The Penis Contains masses of spongy tissue with sinuses Sinuses fill with blood resulting in erection Compress veins so blood is retained Help penis penetrate vagina During ejaculation, sphincter at base of urinary bladder is closed
Male Reproductive System Overview Functions of male reproductive system Produce, sustain, and transport sperm Propel sperm during sexual intercourse Copulation Produce testosterone
Phimosis Tightness of the foreskin (prepuce) of the penis that prevents it from being pulled back Opening of the foreskin narrows due to the tightness and may cause some difficulty with urination
Epispadias Congenital defect in which urethra opens on the upper side of the penis at some point near the glans
Hydrocele Accumulation of fluid in any sac-like cavity or duct Particularly the scrotal sac or along the spermatic cord
Hypospadias Congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis instead of at the end
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) Benign enlargement of prostate gland Creates pressure on upper part of urethra or neck of the bladder, causing obstruction of flow of urine
BPH (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy) the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which are divided into storage, voiding, and symptoms which occur after urination
Pathophysiology of BPH an increase of the enzymes aromatase and 5-alpha reductase.
Diagnosis of BPH a history of LUTS, a digital rectal exam, and exclusion of other cause, Blood tests are often performed to rule out prostatic malignancy
Management BPH lifestyle, voiding position, medications, self-catheterization, surgery
Carcinoma of the Prostate Malignant growth within prostate gland; Creates pressure on upper part of urethra; The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes; diagnose with biopsy
Balanitis Inflammation of glans penis and mucous membrane beneath it
Anorchism Absence of one or both testicles
Carcinoma of the Testes Malignant tumor of testicle that appears as a painless lump Also called testicular cancer
Cryptorchidism Condition of undescended testicle(s) Absence of one or both testicles from scrotum
Impotence Inability of a male to achieve or sustain an erection of the penis
Inguinal Hernia Protrusion of a part of the intestine through a weakened spot in the muscles and membranes of inguinal region of the abdomen Intestine pushes into, and sometimes fills, the entire scrotal sac in the male
Orchitis Inflammation of the testes due to a virus, bacterial infection, or injury Condition may affect one or both testes Typically results from the mumps virus
Premature Ejaculation Discharge of seminal fluid prior to complete erection of the penis or immediately after the penis has been introduced into the vaginal canal
Prostatitis Inflammation of the prostate gland May be acute or chronic May be due to bacterial invasion
Varicocele Abnormal dilation of the veins of the spermatic cord leading to the testicle
AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Deadly virus that destroys the body’s immune system by invading the helper T lymphocytes (T cells)
AIDS Symptoms Acute infection influenza-like illness or a mononucleosis-like illness 2–4 weeks post exposure while others have no significant symptoms
Kaposi's sarcoma the most common cancer occurring in 10 to 20% of people with HIV
AIDS Transmission sexual contact significant exposure to infected body fluids or tissues from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding (known as vertical transmission)
Chlamydia Sexually transmitted bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the cervix in women and inflammation of the urethra and the epididymis in men
Genital Herpes Highly contagious viral infection of the male and female genitalia, caused by herpes simplex virus (usually HSV-2) Aka venereal herpes Differs from other sexually transmitted diseases in that it can recur spontaneously once the virus has been acquired
Genital Warts Small, cauliflower-like, fleshy growths usually seen along the penis in the male and in or near the vagina in women Caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) Transmitted from person to person through sexual intercourse
Gonorrhea Sexually transmitted bacterial infection of the mucous membrane of the genital tract in men and women, caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae Spread by sexual intercourse with an infected partner Can be passed from mother to baby during the birth process
Syphilis Sexually transmitted disease characterized by lesions that may involve any organ or tissue Spread by sexual intercourse with an infected partner If left untreated, disease passes through three stages, each with characteristic signs and symptoms
Primary syphilis (Chancre) Characterized by appearance of a small, painless, red pustule on the skin or mucous membrane Develops on the penis and the labia of the vagina Appears w/in 10 days to a few weeks after exposure Can be treated effectively with penicillin G
Secondary syphilis Occurs approximately two months later if primary phase is left untreated Dominant sign is nonitching rash on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet May also experience headache, sore throat, fever, malaise, anorexia, and bone and joint pain
Secondary syphilis Disease is still contagious during second stage Can be treated effectively with penicillin Dormant period follows secondary stage (if left untreated) For 5 to 20 years before reappearing in its final stage
Tertiary syphilis Final and most serious stage of the untreated disease Lesions have invaded body organs and systems Lesions are not reversible, do not respond to treatment with penicillin and can lead to life-threatening disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and heart
Trichomoniasis Sexually transmitted protozoal infection of the vagina, urethra, or prostate Causative organism is Trichomonas vaginalis Women will experience itching and burning, and a strong-smelling vaginal discharge that is greenish-yellow
Protozoa diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms
Castration Surgical removal of the testicles in the male (or the ovaries in the female) Known as an orchidectomy or orchiectomy in the male Known as an oophorectomy in the female
Circumcision Surgical procedure in which the foreskin (prepuce) of the penis is removed Adult male circumcision much less common and more complicated
Cystoscopy Process of visualizing the urinary tract through a cystoscope that has been inserted in the urethra
FTA-ABS Test Fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test Serological test for syphilis (performed on blood serum)
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) Radiographic procedure provides visual of the entire urinary tract; Contrast dye is injected and X-rays are taken as the medium is cleared from the blood by the glomerular filtration of the kidney; Aka intravenous pyelography or excretory urogram
Orchidectomy Surgical removal of a testicle Also called orchiectomy
Orchidopexy Surgical fixation of a testicle Also called orchiopexy
Radical prostatectomy Surgical removal of the entire prostate gland as a treatment for cancer
Semen analysis Assessment of a sample of semen for volume, viscosity, sperm count, sperm motility, and percentage of any abnormal sperm
Suprapubic prostatectomy Surgical removal of the prostate gland by making an incision into the abdominal wall, just above the pubis
Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR or TURP) Surgical removal of prostate gland by inserting a resectoscope through urethra and into bladder to remove small pieces of tissue from prostate
Vasectomy Surgical cutting and tying of the vas deferens to prevent passage of sperm, consequently preventing pregnancy Male sterilization
VDRL test Serological test for syphilis; widely used to test for primary and secondary syphilis Performed on blood serum VDRL = Venereal Disease Research Laboratory
AIDS Stage 0 the time between a negative or indeterminate HIV test followed less than 180 days by a positive test
AIDS Stage 1 CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/µl and no AIDS defining conditions
AIDS Stage 2 CD4 count 200 to 500 cells/µl and no AIDS defining conditions
AIDS Stage 3 CD4 count ≤ 200 cells/µl or AIDS defining conditions
Wet mount; wet prep Microscopic examination of fresh vaginal or male urethral secretions to test for presence of living organisms
Created by: wallace263
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