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The Age of Reason

The English Civil War, the Enlightenment, and the Scientific Revolution

TermDefinition
Divine Right The idea that monarchs got their power from God and exercised authority over people in "his" name
Absolute Ruler - power was centralized -Monarch had power to make laws and act as judge, jury, and executioner -Monarch got to grant and tax lands - Monarch's power had no limits & no civil and human rights b/c of no docs/constitutions
Louis XIV (the Sun King) ruled France, turned the French Catholic by repealing the Edict of Nantes, funded the Palace of Versailles by setting up heavy taxes
Peter I (the Great) ruled Russia, Westernized Russia, forcibly made Russian nobles shave their beards, established heavy taxes in order to build a modern Western military and "St. Petersburg" (new capital)
Versailles Palace Representation of Louis XIV's power
English Civil War -Parliament vs Charles I -Oliver Cromwell's strict Commonwealth = Parliament unhappy and summoned Charles II to rule -He rules respecting Parliament but his son doesn't -Parliament summons Mary & William to rule - Parliament = more power + common law
Roundheads Parliament's forces
Cavaliers King Charles I's forces
King Charles I English King, abused his power
King Charles II Son of King Charles I, Parliament calls him back to the English throne when they were not happy with Oliver Cromwell's rule
King James II Son of King Charles II, felt no duty towards Parliament and attempted to govern as a monarch under "divine right"
William & Mary Parliament calls them to rule in place of James II, both sign the English Bill of Rights which establishes a "limited" monarchy and "common law" which is based on the court's ruling (11 people)
Constitutional or limited monarchy Parliament has more power than the monarch and the law is "common law" that is based on the court's ruling (11 people)
Period of the "restoration of the Monarchy" - Parliament, unhappy with Cromwell's rule, summoned Charles II to rule - Charles II rules while respecting Parliament's position - James II (son of Charles II) doesn't respect Parliament's position and attempts to govern as a monarch under "divine right"
Oliver Cromwell - Led the Roundheads - Executed King Charles I - Created the English Commonwealth in which he ruled strictly based on Puritan religious standards
The Commonwealth -Created by Cromwell - Rule was strict and based on Puritan religious standards
The Glorious Revolution - Mary II & William take the throne - They sign the English Bill of Rights which establishes a "limited" monarchy - This gives Parliament more power than the monarch and the law becomes "common law" that is based on the court's ruling (11 people)
The Enlightenment - Encouraged: *religious tolerance *democratic rebellions throughout the world - Reason was applied to assist in comprehending the human society, esp. in law and gov - Humans can progress if scientific knowledge and reason is applied to gov & law
The Scientific Revolution - Scientific knowledge grew - Systematic observation and reason valued - The belief that scientific knowledge can improve/advance the world - The scientific method created
Thomas Hobbes Thought that people existed in a primitive and savage state and the outcome of this was the creation of a gov for protection. Also that the power of the gov should be absolute to make and preserve order. - Wrote Leviathan - Absolute monarchy
John Locke Government was created to protect the natural rights (liberty, property, and life) of people and it was their responsibility to rebel against governments that violate these rights. - democracy - Wrote Two Treatises on Government
Montesquieu - Thought that government should have a separation of powers in order to terminate absolutism - Wrote In Spirit of Laws - A gov with separated powers
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Wrote the Social Contract which included his idea that government is a contract the people and the rules participate in willingly and that both parties need to carry out their responsibilities. - Two participants, both with responsibilities to fulfill
Voltaire -Church and state should be separated - Favored religious toleration *A tolerant gov that is not connected to church
Leviathan Written by Thomas Hobbes that included his thoughts that people existed in a primitive and savage state and the outcome of this was the creation of a gov for protection. Also that the power of the gov should be absolute to make and preserve order.
Two Treatises on Government Written by John Locke that included his ideas that government was created to protect the natural rights (liberty, property, and life) of people and it was their responsibility/job to rebel against governments that violate these rights.
In the Spirit of Laws Written by Montesquieu that included his idea that government should have a separation of powers in order to terminate absolutism.
The Social Contract Written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau that included his isea tha government is a contract that the people and the rules participate in willingly - Both parties need to carry out their responsibilities/duties
Nicolaus Copernicus Discovered that the sun is the center of the solar system, instead of the Earth, and because of this, the Earth rotates around the sun (Heliocentric Theory)
Johannes Kepler Had the idea that planets orbit around the sun
Galileo Galilei Affirmed the heliocentric theory with the help of a telescope but had to renounce this because of the Court of Inquisition's persecution
Sir Isaac Newton Discovered gravity; this assisted in Kepler's theory being explained
William Harvey Found out about blood circulation in a closed system across the human body
Johann Sebastian Bach Baroque music composer
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Classical music composer
Eugene de la Croix Helped bring about Romanticism
Romanticism Art emphasizing nature and people's emotions
Miguel de Cervantes Invented the novel
the New Model Army Cromwell's Army
English Bill of Rights - Created a limited monarchy: gave more power to Parliament than the monarch - the law is "common law" that is based on the court's ruling (11 people)
Created by: Sabrina Akter