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The Age of Reason

The English Civil War, The Enlightenment, & the Scientific Revolution

TermDefinition
Divine Right received their authority from god, and ruled their dominions in "his" name, therefore, to question the authority of the monarchs was to question the authority of god
Absolute Ruler Rule by one person — a monarch, usually a king or a queen — whose actions are restricted neither by written law nor by custom; a system different from a constitutional monarchy and from a republic.
Louis XIV (sun king) he was french, revoked the edict of nantes forcing all french to be catholic , instituted heavy taxes to finance the palace of versailles as a symbol of his power
Peter I (the great) he was russian, forced russia to westernize, forced russian nobles to shave their beards, instituted heavy taxes to build a new capital in his name "St. Petersburg" and create a modern western military
Versailles Palace a large royal residence built in the seventeenth century by King Louis XIV of France in Versailles, near Paris
English Civil War a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, principally, the manner of England's government
Roundheads a member or supporter of the Parliamentary party in the English Civil War
Cavaliers a supporter of King Charles I in the English Civil War
King Charles I Charles I was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
King Charles II Charles II was king of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland, and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death.
King James II James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688
William & Mary rulers, their joint reign began in February 1689 after they were offered the throne by the Convention Parliament irregularly summoned by William after his victorious invasion of England, the Glorious Revolution
Constitutional or Limited Monarchy a form of constitutional government, wherein either an elected or hereditary monarch is the head of state, unlike in an absolute monarchy, where the king or the queen is the sole source of political power, as he or she is not legally bound by the national
Period of the "Restoration of the Monarchy" king charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration, it began in 1660 when the english, scottish and irish monarchies were all restored under charles II after the interregnum that followed the wars of the 3 kingdoms
Oliver Cromwell executes king charles I and establishes the english commonwealth, imposed strict rule based on puritan religious standards
The Commonwealth the commonwealth was the period from 1649 onwards when england and wales, later along with ireland and scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the second english ivil war and the trial and execution of charles I
The Glorious Revolution when william and mary took the English throne from James II in 1688, the event brought a permanent realignment of power within the English constitution
The Enlightenment applied reason to understanding the human society, particularly in the areas of law and gov, belief human progress is possible through the application of scientific know. and reason to issues of law and gov, stimulated religious tolerance, democratic rev.
The Scientific Revolution emphasis on reason & systematic observation, formulation/expansion of the scientific method, belief the world could be improved/progress could be made through the application of scientific knowledge
Thomas Hobbes believed, in the "state of nature" humans existed in a primitive and brutal state, people eventually consented to the formation of a government
John Locke believed people are capable of governing themselves, even in the "state of nature," in which they enjoy complete freedom
Montesquieu thought the best way to end absolutism was to create a separation of powers within the government
Jean-Jacques Rousseau said that people would make the laws and would obey them, rousseau put his faith in the "general will"- the will of the majority
Voltaire religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of church and state
Leviathan book written by thomas hobbes
Two Treatises on Government book written by john locke
In the Spirit of Laws book written by montesquieu
The Social Contract government is a contract freely entered into between rulers and the people, both sides must fulfill their obligations to one another
Nicolaus Copernicus heliocentric theory- copernicus posthumously published the discovery that the sun was the center of the solar system, not the earth, and therefore, the earth revolves around the sun
Johannes Kepler published the idea that planetary motion is in the form of elliptical orbits around the sun
Galileo Galilei used telescope to confirm heliocentric theory, but was forced to recant his theory when faced with prosecution by the Court of Inquisition
Sir Isaac Newton formulated the laws of gravity, which helped to explain Kepler's theory of planetary motion as orbits depend on the gravitational force exerted by the mass of an object like the sun and a planet
William Harvey discovered blood circulates throughout the body in a closed system
Johann Sebastian Bach prominent Baroque composer
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart a prominent classical composer
Eugene de la Croix a painter who contributed to romanticism, an artistic movement focused on the beauty of nature and exposing human emotion
Romanticism a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual
Miguel de Cervantes helped to develop a new form of literature, the novel, with his famous work Don Quixote
New Model Army formed as a result of dissatisfaction among Parliamentarians with the conduct of the Civil War in 1644
English Bill of Rights the bill creates separation of powers, limits the powers of the king and queen, enhances the democratic election and bolsters freedom of speech
Created by: j.ortiz8