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Phleb. Entrance Exa

QuestionAnswer
Coagulation Testing - is performed on ___________ plasma
These studies are collected in tubes containing an _____________ _______, which preserves the coagulation factors. Anticoagulant Citrate
Coagulation tests which monitor _________________________ therapy are performed on patients with a history of strokes, heart attacks or thombophlebitis (blood clots) Anticoagulant
Drugs to prevent ________ and aid in avoiding recurrence of the above-listed time must be carefully monitored. Clotting
Clotting disorders such as ____________ (patients blood does not clot) must also be monitored. Hemophilia
-Common Coagulation Tests- Activated _____________ time Clotting
-Common Coagulation Tests- Activated partial _____________________ time thromboplastin
-Common Coagulation Tests-_____________ time Bleeding
-Common Coagulation Tests- _________ activity assays Factor
-Common Coagulation Tests-_________ and ______ degradation tests Fibrinogen & Fibrin
-Common Coagulation Tests-__________________ normalized ratio International
-Common Coagulation Tests-_______________ time Prothrombin
-Common Coagulation Tests-____________ clotting time Thrombin
-Common Chemistry Tests & Panels-Most blood chemistry tests are performed on either _________ or _________ Serum Plasma
-Common Coagulation Tests-In blood chemistry tests/panels, _____ is collected in a plain ___-top tube without _________________ or in a serum _____________ tube (SST) Serum Red Anticoagulants Separator
-Common Coagulation Tests-The blood is allowed to clot for about ___ minutes before the serum is separated by a _____________ 30 Centrifuge
-Common Coagulation Tests-In blood chemistry test/panels plasma is collected with tubes that contain either ________ or ____________ Heparin Fluoride
-Chemistry 7- To assess basic ______ function; General _______________ screen/ ______ panel Organ Metabolic Basic
___________ Panel - To check for diabetes which is indicated by elevated levels of glucose Glucose
Glucose Panel - FB Sugar Fasting Blood Sugar
Glucose Panel - 2-Hour ______________ glucose Postprandial
Glucose Panel - Glucose ______________ Test (GTT) Glucose Tolerance Test
Glucose Panel - _______ Hemoglobin (_____) Glycated HbA1c
To evaluate levels of ions in the blood, which indicate various conditions Electrolyte Panel
Electrolyte Panel - What are the four Electrolyte to evaluate the level of ions? Potassium, Chloride, Sodium, Bicarbonate
To assess liver health/function enzymes and bilirubin Liver Function Panel 1
Which function panel tests Alkaline Aminotransferase (ALT)? 2 Liver Function Panel 2
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) Liver Function Panel 3
To assess kidney health/function enzymes and bilirubin Renal Function Panel
Blood use nitrogen (BUN) Renal Function Panel 1
Creatinine Renal Function Panel 2
Creatinine clearance Renal Function Panel 3
Phosphorus and Calcium Renal Function Panel 4
Protein/Total Protein Renal Function Panel 5
Albumin Renal Function Panel 6
To assess risk of heart disease Coronary Risk Panel
Cholesterol Coronary Risk Panel 1
Triglycerides Coronary Risk Panel 2
High-density lipoprotien (HDL) Coronary Risk Panel 3
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) Coronary Risk Panel 4
Myocardial Infarction (MI) Screen To assess occurrence and timing of heart attack that has already happened
AST creatine kinase (CK)
CK isoenzymes Lactate dehydration (LDH)
Troponin Cardiac Enzymes
To assess risk of cardiac event or stroke Lipid Panel
Triglycerides Lipid Panel 2
Cholesterol Lipid Panel 3
LDL and HDL Lipid Panel 4
List the standard phlebotomy cart/tray contains the following blood collection equipment needles, disposable containers for needles, needle holder, tubes with colors, syringes, butterfly needles, marking pens, tourniquets, antiseptic cleaning pads, gauze pads, bandages, gloves
If you need to reuse a tourniquet what can you do? Disinfect it
What is an alternative if a patient is allergic to latex? Velcro or blood pressure cuffs
Which pair of gloves have been proven to prevent transmission of infectious diseases? Latex
What is an alternative pair of gloves is a phlebotomist or patient is allergic to latex? Nitrile
A sharp needle will have a smooth entry into the skin with minimum pain to the patient. Point
Angle; Eases the needles into the patients skin and prevents the needle from coring out a plug of tissue. Bevel
Body of the needle; Needle shafts come in a variety of lengths Shaft
What is the range length of venipuncture needles? 3/4 - 1 1/2 inches in length
Which needles works better to ease the fear of patients? Shorter needles
Which needle is easier to manipulate? Longer needles
The hollow tube within the shaft of the needle Lumen
The diameter of the lumen; needle packs are color-coded for easy identification Gauge
The largest diameter used in phlebotomy is a __-gauge needle, typically used by "blood banks" to collect from donors 16
The smallest diameter used is a __-gauge needle, for collection from patients with small "fragile veins" 23
Which two gauges are used for adult patients who gets "routine blood samples" 20-21 gauge
Place where the needle attaches to the collecting tube or syringe Hub
For most blood collection Multi-sample needles
A multi-sample needle is used which is a _________-_______ needle; one tip of the needle pierces the patient's skin while the other end is inserted into the _____________ tube Double-ended Evacuation
a multi-sample needles have a ______________ ________ that covers the second tip when it is not inserted in the tube. Retractable sleeve
A multi-sample needle remains __ patient's vein while the phlebotomist is able to exchange one tube for another in
Multi-Sample Needle - the __________ sleeve keeps the blood from leaking onto or into the tube holder while changing tubes Rubber
Patients with small or fragile veins benefit most from the use of a syringe because the vacuum of the collection tube is likely to cause the vein to collapse Safety Syringe Needles 1
With a syringe, suction can be applied slowly and gradually, so as to vacuum fragile veins as gently as possible Safety syringe needles 2
Safety syringe comes in a variety of sizes but the most common needle used is a __ gauge that is an inch long 22
Used for venipuncture or small and or fragile veins such as in the hands, in pediatric and or elderly patients and for patients with circulation conditions/problems (PVD, Raynaud's disease, etc) Winged infusion sets (butterfly needles)
The butterfly needle allows greater _________ in placing and manipulating where the phlebotomist wants to draw the patients blood Flexibility
What is the most common gauge used for winged string? (1/2 - 3/4 of an inch long) 23
Winged infusion sets (butterfly needles) are held by a plastic ______________-_____________ grip butterfly-shaped
Winged infusion sets (butterfly needles) is connected to flexible _____ tubing & with the proper _______, can be connected to an __________ tube. latex adapter evacuation
Most butterfly needles (winged infusion sets) are now designed to be used with _____________________ tubes evacuation
Because most blood collections make use of a multi-sample needle and an evacuation collection tube, a __________ ____________ (____ ______) is used to ensure a good connection between them. Needle Adapter
A needle adapter is a translucent plastic cylinder with one small end that accepts the needle, while the other end has a wide opening that accepts the ________________ tube Collection
Needle adapters come in different ______ to ___ different tubes sizes fit
To ensure a proper connection between the needle and the tube, adapters have a tube advancement mark indicating how far a tube can be pushed _______________ ______________ the vacuum. Without losing
Evacuated tubes can be used with both the _______________ tube system and with the ______________ method of obtaining blood specimens. Evacuated tube system Syringe Method
_______________ _______ can be used with both the evacuated tube system and with the syringe method of obtaining blood specimens. Evacuated Tubes
Evacuated Tubes are the most direct and efficient method of obtaining a blood specimen because blood is collected ___________ into the tube during the venipuncture Directly
Evacuation tubes can also be used for _____________________ blood from a syringe into the tubes. Transferring
syringe needle is simply pushed through the top of the tube, and the blood is automatically pulled into the tube system because of the ______. Vacuum
vacuum tube should be placed in a rack before pushing the needle into the tube top in order to prevent damage to the cellular components which causes ______________ Hemolysis
What are the three components that are required in a Evacuated Tube System? Evacuated sample tube Multi-sample needle Needle Holder
One end of the double-pointed needle enters the vein, the other end pierces the top of the tube and the ________ _____________ the blood. Vacuum Aspirates
The evacuated tubes fill with blood automatically because of __________ that exists inside the tube. Vacuum
The amount of vacuum is pre-measured so that the tube will draw a precise amount of blood; a tube that has lost its vacuum will ____ fill with blood Not
_______-________ evacuation tubes aid the phlebotomist in ensuring that the physician's prescription is followed. Color-coded
List three of the descriptions used in color-coding for blood draw tubes. Type of blood draw Additive in the tube Specimen to be tested
The colored tube tops are either _____ rubber stoppers or rubber stoppers with ___________ _____ Thick Plastic tops
The plastic top minimizes the chance of an __________ spray when the top is removed. Aerosol
Most evacuation tubes are made of plastic, which is safer to transport and can withstand the _____ forces inside the _____________ Inside Centrifuge
The exception to plastic tubes is ____-topped glass tubes, which are used only for _______ collection and contain ___ additives; they come in various sizes ranging from 2-15mL. Red Serum No
The phlebotomist must be careful to match the needle size to the ____ size; the wrong size tube and needle combination could render the drawn sample useless. tube
Evacuation Tube Size is selected in, what three ways? age of the patient amount of blood needed for the test size and condition of the patient's vein
Each test requires a particular minimum sample volume; those volumes may range from less than _mL to __mL to __mL or more 1mL to 10mL or more
Some evacuation tubes are coated on the inside with silicon to help prevent destruction of ____ RBC's
Some evacuation tubes are coated on the inside with silicon to help prevent blood from _________ to the sides of the tube. sticking
Some evacuation tubes are coated on the inside with silicon to prevent _____________ of clotting factors activation
Evacuated tubes may or may not contain _____________. additives
blood collected in tubes without additives will ____ and yield ________. clot serum
Many tubes are specifically designed to-be used directly with ______________, _______________, or ______________________ instrumentation. Chemistry, Hematology, Microbiology
Except for the ___ topped glass tube, which has ___ additives, all tubes contain at least one additive. red no
Tube Additives include ____________________, ____ __________________, ______________________ gel to separate components, ________________ and _______________ of various cellular reactions to maintain the integrity of the specimen. Anticoagulants, Clot Activators, Thixotropic gel, Preservatives, Inhibitors
Any tube containing an additive must be __________ and _____ immediately after removal from the needle adapter into the evacuated tube inverted mixed
Turning the tube over and then back equals _____ inversion one
Prevent clotting (coagulation) sodium or potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) binds calcium, which will inhibit coagulation of the blood Anticoagulants
Other additives that bind calcium are _____________ __________, ______________ __________, sodium ________________ _________________ (SPS) Sodium Citrate, Potassium Oxalate, Sodium Polyanethol Sulfonate (SPS)
____________ inhibits clotting by preventing the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin Heparin
Used for glucose determination; may be combined with sodium fluoride (inhibits glycolysis, which is a cellular reaction to harvest energy from glucose Potassium Oxalate
Promote coagulation (clotting); thrombin increases clotting and is used for STAT serum chemistry or if the patient is on anticoagulants Clot Activators
Substances such as glass or silica promote ______________ by providing more surface area for platelet activation Clotting
Clot activators may be adhered to the _____ of the tube side
Phlebotomist should invert the tube at least _______ times to make sure the drawn sample has come in contract with the activator Five
inert, synthetic substance with a density in between that of cells and blood serum or plasma Thixotropic Gel
Thixotropic gel - As a result when patient's blood is drawn and centrifuged the thixotropic gel turns to ________ and moves between the lower cell layer and the upper serum or plasma layer liquid
Tube Additive - gel _________ after standing and forms a barrier between the two layers which allows for easy separation Hardens
More often than not patients have more than one blood test ordered which means that more than ____ tube of blood is to be drawn from the patient one
The same multi-sample needles can be used to fill multiple tubes for the same patient but precautions must be taken to ensure that material from an earlier tube is not ________________ to a later tube thus contaminating the sample Transferred
The ____________ and _______________ __________________ _________________ has developed a set of standards for proper order of draw the order of draw is the same for syringe draws Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute
The consensus of medical opinion on what is adequate patient care in a particular situation Accepted standard of care
use precautions with patients known to have a serious illness that can be transmitted through airborne droplets Airborne infection precautions
an allergic reaction to skin allergen contract Allergic contract dermatitis
Substance being analyzed Analyte
bedside dermal puncture to determine blood glucose level Ancillary blood glucose test
area inside the elbow where the best veins for blood draw are located Antecubital fossa
Additives that prevent blood from clotting Anticoagulants
Patient's own blood donation collected fro use at a later time Autologous Donation
Prominent vein in antecubital fossa; third choice for blood draw Basilic Vein
Measures the amount of time it takes bleeding to stop after an incision is made Bleeding Time (BT) Test
Infectious agents carried in the blood Blood-borne pathogens
The presence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) Blood Type
Artery in the antecubital fossa Brachial Artery
Small needle with flexible tube for delicate veins Butterfly or Winged infusion set needle
Small tube use for hematocrit tests Capillary Tube
Act of separating components of a sample based on density by using a machine that spins a sample at very high rate of speed Centrifuge
Prominent vein in antecubital fossa; second choice for blood draw Cephalic vein
A group of blood chemistry tests; most common is Chem 7 Chemistry Panel
Additives that stimulate clotting Clot Activators
Clotting Coagulation
Used to test for conditions that affect the number and ratio of cell types in the blood; most common blood test Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Used when a patient is known or suspected to have a serious illness that may be spread by direct contact Contact Precautions
assesses the ratio of the different types of white blood cells and to look for changes in the RBCs and patients Differential (diff)
used for patients who are known or suspected to transmit serious illness by large particle droplets (tuberculosis) Droplet precautions
metal filing used to mix blood with additives in small tubes Flea
Patient Privacy Act Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act (HIPPA)
Determines the percentage of the blood volume that is RBCs Hematocrit (HCT)
A swollen reddened area under the skin where blood collects Hematoma
Increase in the ratio of formed elements in the plasma usually caused by leaving the tourniquet on too long Hemoconcentration
Gives blood its red color because it contains iron; transports oxygen Hemoglobin (Hgb)
Hemolysis Destruction of RBCs
The process by which the body stops blood from leaking out of a wound Hemostasis
A tube temporarily placed on the peripheral vein; may be used to administer medicine or draw blood Heparin or Saline lock
Monitors and evaluates the quality of patient care; institution will lose Medicare funding if it has not been accredited by JCAHO Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
Used to attach a butterfly needle to an evacuation tube Luer Adapter
The hollow tube part of the needle Lumen
Provide information on chemicals their hazards and procedures for cleanup and first aid Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
prominent vein in antecubital fossa; first choice for blood draw Median Cubital Vein
Small tube used to collect dermal puncture samples Microcollection Tube "bullet"
Large glass capillary tube Micropipette
a double-ended needle designed to be used with an evacuation tube system Multi-sample needle
Translucent plastic cylinder connecting a multi-sample needle to an evacuated tube Needle adapter
blocked occluded
Regulates safety in the workplace OSHA
A prescribed sequence in which tubes with different additives should be filled during a multi-tube collection Order of draw
probing and feeling palpation
infectious organism pathogen
gowns, masks, respirators, face shields, shoe covers and gloves Personal protective equipment
red spots appearing on the skin that are caused by a tourniquet that is too tight petechiae
digestion of blood-borne microorganisms that cause infections Phagocytosis
The practice of drawing blood Phlebotomy
the yellow-colored liquid component of blood in which blood cells are suspended plasma
policies and procedures designed to ensure the delivery of high-quality patient care and specimen analysis Quality Phlebotomy
flow of blood from the collection tube back through the needle and into the patient's vein reflux
plasma without its clotting factors; tests performed on serum are called serology serum
needles, lancets, broken glass, and other sharp items sharps
infection control that uses a protective barrier to prevent direct skin contact with blood, body fluids and tissues from all persons Standard precautions
A request for immediate attention and processing STAT
an instrument used to inject or withdraw fluids it is a simple piston pump consisting of a plunger that fits tightly in a tube; open end of the syringe may by fitted with a hypodermic needle a nozzle or tubing Syringe
removal of blood (blood letting) as part of a treatment for a disorder Therapeutic phlebotomy
an inert additive used to separate cells from plasma during centrifuging Thixotropic gel
clot formation in a blood vessel Thrombosis
placed on a needle adapter to indicate how far the tube can be pushed in without losing vacuum pressure tube advancement mark
Created by: 1StellarStar