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Age of Reason

The Age of Reason-The English Civil War-The Enlightenment, & the Scientific Rev.

Divine Right The idea that monarchs received their authority from God.
Absolute ruler A ruler who uses Divine Right to justify their centralized power. They were the center of all power and a lack of constitution meant limitless power for them.
Louis XIV (the Sun King) The absolute ruler of France who revoked the Edict of Nantes and instituted heavy taxes to finance the Palace of Versailles.
Peter I (the Great) The absolute ruler of Russia who forced Russia to westernize, forced Russian nobles to shave their beards, and instituted heavy taxes to build a new capital in his name, "St. Petersburg".
Versailles Palace This palace was a symbol of power for Louis XIV, who instituted heavy taxes to build it. Located in France.
English Civil War The war in which Parliament revolted against King Charles I for his abuse of power.
Roundheads The forces of Parliament.
Cavaliers The forces of King Charles I.
King Charles I Absolute ruler of England whom Parliament revolted against. He was executed by Oliver Cromwell.
King Charles II The son of King Charles I and brother of King James II, who was asked to take the throne by Parliament.
King James II The son of King Charles I and brother of King Charles II who felt no obligation to Parliament and tried to rule as an absolute ruler.
William and Mary James II's Protestant daughter and her husband, who Parliament invites to take the throne. They sign the English Bill of Rights, limiting the power of the monarch.
Constitutional or limited monarchy Parliament has greater power than the monarchs and the law is "common law" for all people.
Period of the "Restoration of the Monarchy" The period where Parliament invites King Charles II to retake the English throne.
Oliver Cromwell The leader of the Roundheads who executed King Charles I and establishes the English Commonwealth. He imposed strict Puritan rule.
The Commonwealth The government led by Oliver Cromwell that formed after he and his army overtook Parliament.
The Glorious Revolution The bloodless revolution in which William and Mary take the throne and sign the English Bill of Rights.
The Enlightenment This fueled democratic revolutions around the world, stimulated religious tolerance, and applied reason to understand the human society.
The Scientific Revolution This had an emphasis on reason and systemic observation, formed the scientific method, and expanded scientific knowledge.
Thomas Hobbes Believed in the state of nature, where humans existed in a primitive and brutal state. As a result, government should be absolute in its power. He wrote the Leviathan.
John Locke Believed government is formed only to protect the people's natural rights. Natural rights are the rights all people have even in the state of nature(life, liberty, and property). People should revolt against governments that violate their natural rights.
Montesquieu Believed the best way to end absolutism was to create a separation of powers within the government. Wrote In the Spirits of Laws.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Believed in the Social Contract, which stated that government is a contract freely entered into between rulers and the people.
Voltaire Believed that religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism. Believed in the separation of church and state.
Leviathan Written by Thomas Hobbes and is about the state of nature.
Two Treatises on Government Written by John Locke and is about natural rights.
In The Spirit of Laws Written by Montesquieu and is about the separation of power in government.
The Social Contract Written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and says that government is a contract freely entered into between rulers and the people.
Nicolaus Copernicus Scientist who composed the Heliocentric Theory, which said the sun was the center of the solar system, not the Earth.
Johannes Kepler Scientist who published the idea that planetary motion is in the form of elliptical orbits around the sun.
Galileo Galilei Scientist who used the telescope to confirm the Heliocentric Theory, but was forced to recant his theory under the Courts of Inquisition.
Sir Isaac Newton Scientist who formulated the laws of gravity, which helped explain Kepler's theory of planetary motion.
William Harvey Scientist who discovered blood circulates throughout the body in a closed system.
Johann Sebastian Bach Prominent Baroque music composer.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Prominent Classical music composer.
Eugene de la Croix A painter who contributed to Romanticism.
Romanticism An artistic movement focused on the beauty of nature and exposing human emotion.
Miguel de Cervantes Author of Don Quixote. His work helped develop a new form of literature, the novel.
New Model Army This army consisted of capable men despite their occupation or rank in society. Led by Oliver Cromwell.
Created by: PravarJ