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French revolution

Louis XV King who became monarch too early. During his early reign, a group of nobles abused the monarch power by acquiring personal luxuries, and monopolized the highest offices
Louis XVI King who is shy, awkward, inadequate, and not a good leader.
Maria Antoinette Austrian princess who comes to France as young girl. She had a bad reputation for not giving birth to an heir.
Jackes Necker A financial manager and the most popular minister. Asks Louis XVI to call Estates b/c he wants to make sure everyone is fed.
Estates General / Old Regime Made up of 3 group - Clergy (Church, 1%), Nobility (high class, 2%), Everyone else (Commoners, 97%). All had one vote (unfair).
Tennis Court Oath When 3rd regime gathers everyday until new Constitution is made - do this to defy King, and form new government
National Assembly Group made up of 3rd regime - new temporary government made during beginning of Revolution
Parisian mob Group who storm Bastille (symbol of government) to obtain gun powder and weapons to have a chance against French Army, then destroy building
Declaration of the Rights of Man Very liberal document guaranteeing no class distinction, and that all men were equal
Civil Constitution of the Clergy Document allowing the state to obtain the church's property. Caused a counterrevolution of Catholics resisting against because they were afraid spiritually
Jean Paul Marat A poor Jacobin writer whose newspaper expressed the paranoia and fear towards revolution, and that people should become violent for the Revolution
Poissades Group of angry Parisian women who marched to Versailles on October 5th, 1789 to protest shortage of bread - help bring Louis XVI and Marie to Paris
Constitution of 1791 A document creating a new constitutional monarchy where more power was given to the "Parliament," not the King
Legislative Assembly New government in which 3 groups (parties) were formed depending on their opinion on the Revolution.
Jacobins The radical left side of the Legislative Assembly that believed in expanding the revolution and eliminate any monarchy. Wanted power to be with the common people
Moderates Middle side of the Legislative Assembly, did not feel too extreme about it
Girondins The reactionary right side of the Legislative Assembly that believed Revolution had gone too far, and were ok with the new government
Counterrevolutionary War 1792 Event that caused more a more radical atmosphere for revolution in which Austria and Prussia want French monarchs back to end other revolutions
National Convention The Republic found by the Jacobins to finally take over the King and Queen
Sans culottes Commoners who did not wear knee-high pants to appear different than Nobility from Old Regime - act of rebellion
George Danton Ministry of justice who convinces men to join army. Eventually killed in guillatine
September Day Massacres Time when Sans culottes assassinated more than 16,000 prisoners and others against the Revolution
Charlotte Corday A Girondin who kills Marat on July 13, 1793 against his Revolutionary power
The Terror A period of violent repression that suspends the Constitution. Time when hundreds against the revolution die
National Convention's Committee of Public Safety Organization that gave higher executive power. It was led by Robespierre to oversee Reign of Terror
Levee en masse A conscript army started to defend the revolution
Anti-Christianization Because Revolutionaries believed religion was root of all problems, this policy was set. It included reverence to Goddess of Reason, a new calendar, etc.
The Great Terror Last phase of the terror where executions increase
Thermidorian Reaction The term for the quick dismantling of terror after Robespierre's death and the reaction against the revolution
Directory A government made of 5 chosen executives by the middle and high class, and the propertied classes made it up. Became unpopular because urban poor were desperate and war created inflation
First Consul of France Title Napoleon gained after threatening Directory w/ army, and took over France. He pretended to obey the Constitution, but really treated it as a dictatorship
Napoleonic Settlement Acts established by Napoleon after he took power in order to gain public content
Concordat - Catholicism was semiofficial religion, but state controlled 1st act of Napoleonic Settlement - Religion
Created administrative / judicial systems still highly connected with Paris 2nd act of Napoleonic Settlement - Systems
Granted title to peasant whose land was taken before revolution 3rd act of Napoleonic Settlement - Poor
Napoleonic Code 1804 - Gave new civil and criminal codes of law 4th act of Napoleonic Settlement - Law
Created a more stable financial situation, including one currency for entire country 5th act of Napoleonic Settlement - Money
Allowed exiles who supported new France to return 6th act of Napoleonic Settlement - Exiles
Destroyed Royalist plots to bring back the king, as well as crushed radical Jacobins 7th act of Napoleonic Settlement - Monarch
Battle of Nations / Leipzig First real Napoleonic defeat in which Russia, Prussia, and Austria combine forces.
Hundred Day's Campaign After Napoleon fled Elba to France, after losing battle against Russians, Napoleon obtained tens of thousands of followers to renew war. He was back in power for few months until his defeat.
Battle of Waterloo Napoleon's final chance to regain power, which he failed. After this event, he was shipped as prisoner to St. Helena
Big Four (after Napoleon defeat) Austria, Prussia, Russia, and England - signed agreements for most of Europe
Vienna Settlement / Congress of Vienna Restore of government (w/ takedown of revolutions), international peace (alliances), opposing national / liberalism from French, balanced gov by keeping states relatively equal to each other. Ignored population, but no European conflict until WW1
Russia Originally fan of liberalism / nationalism. Nicholas I brought this country to reactionary / anti-liberal forces
Austria Fought nationalism and people's participation, which stopped in intellectually. Prince Metternich lead the conference in Vienna
Prussia Disliked constitutional government, and improved technologically after war - had best education by 1830s
England Wanted to take advantage in interests to expand industry. Retreated into isolation from 1825 to rest of 1800s.
Created by: uriel_magana