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Chapter 22

Enlightenment and Revolution

Geocentric Theory In the Middle Ages, the earth-centered view of the universe, in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe
Scientific Revolution A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs
Heliocentric Theory The idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
Galileo Galilei Italian scientist that built the telescope, discovered that Jupiter has four moons, that the sun has dark spots, and that the earth's moon had rough, uneven surfaces. Got into conflicts with the Church over his discoveries
Scientific Method A logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypotheses
Isaac Newton English scientist that came up with three laws of motion, and that the same force was responsible for all motion in the universe
Enlightenment An 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principals of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society
Social Contract The agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government
John Locke Philosopher that believed that people could learn from their past experiences and improve themselves. He was in favor of self-government. Believed that the government should serve the people, and if it didn't the people have the right to overthrow it
Philosophe One of a group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment
Voltaire Philosopher that used satire against his opponents. Fought for tolerance, reason, religious freedom, and freedom of speech
Montesquieu Philosopher that believed Britain was the best-governed country of the day. Came up with the idea of separation of powers and checks and balances
Rousseau Philosopher committed to individual freedom. Believed that people should benefit from government, and that if a government didn't help the people then it should be removed.
Mary Wollstonecraft Philosopher that believed women should be treated as equals of men
Salon A social gathering of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the Enlightenment
Baroque Relating to a grand, ornate style that characterized European painting, music, and architecture in the 1600s and early 1700s
Neoclassical Relating to a simple, elegant style (based on ideas and themes from ancient Greece and Rome) that characterized the arts in Europe during the late 1700s
Enlightened Despot One of the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects
Catherine the Great Ruler of Russia from 1762-1796. Set out to reform Russian laws, to promote religious toleration, abolish torture and capital punishment. None of these actually happened
Created by: tj03tayl