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Chapter 21

Absolute Monarchs of Europe

TermDefinition
Phillip II King of Spain and it's empire in 1555. Believed that he needed to defend Catholicism against the Muslims
Absolute Monarch A king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society
Divine Right The idea that monarchs area God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God
Edict of Nantes A 1598 declaration in which the French king Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities
Cardinal Richelieu Stepped in as ruler for Louis XIII after Henry IV's death. Worked to weaken Huguenots, Protestants, and nobles
Skepticism A philosophy based on the idea that nothing can be known for certain
Louis XIV Most powerful ruler in French history. He worked to weaken nobles, strengthen the French economy, fund magnificent art projects, and fought disastrous wars. Built the Palace of Versailles. His reign had mixed results, as France had enormous debt after
Intendant A French government official appointed by the monarch to collect taxes and administer justice
Jean Baptiste Colbert Worked to improve the French economy. Believed that France needed to become self-sufficient. Gave tax breaks to French companies
War of Spanish Succession A conflict, lasting from 1701 to 1713, in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain as well as France
Thirty Years' War A European conflict over religion and territory and for power among ruling families, lasting from 1618 to 1648.
Maria Theresa Ruled the Austrian throne in a war filled period. She reduced the power of the nobility, and limited the amount of work that nobles could force peasants to do
Frederick the Great Ruled Prussia. Believed in religious toleration and legal reform. Tried to expand the territorial control of Prussian Empire
Seven Years' War A conflict in Europe, North America, and India, lasting from 1756 to 1763, in which the forces of Britain and Prussia battled those of Austria, France, Russia, and other countries
Ivan the Terrible Ruled Russia from 1533-1584. He ruled with pure terror, executing anyone that spoke out against him, and taking land from nobles
Boyar A landowning noble of Russia
Peter the Great Became Czar of Russia in 1696. Started many reforms within Russia, mainly introducing western ideas into Russia
Westernization An adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western-especially European or American-countires
Charles I Monarch of England in 1625. Fought with Parliament constantly over money to fund his wars. He put many taxes on the people of England, and was very unpopular among the people
English Civil War A conflict, lasting from 1642 to 1694, in which Puritan supporters of Parliament battled supporters of England's monarchy
Oliver Cromwell Puritan leader in the English Civil War. Would become English Monarch in 1649, and became a military dictator. He constantly battled the Irish and took their lands, and to promote Puritan values
Restoration The period of Charles II's rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell's government
Habeas Corpus A document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal
Glorious Revolution The bloodless overthrow of the English king James II and his replacement by William and Mary
Constitutional Monarchy A system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law
Cabinet A group of advisers of ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions
Created by: tj03tayl