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Chapter 20

The Atlantic World

TermDefinition
Christopher Columbus Explorer for Spain that tried to sail south around Africa to reach Asia, but ended up in the Caribbean and discovered the Americas
Colony A land controlled by another nation
Hernando Cortes Spanish explorer that searched the American mainland for gold and silver. Conquered the Aztecs
Conquistador The Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century
Francisco Pizarro Explorer that conquered the Incan Empire with ease
Atahualpa Incan ruler that tried to stop Pizarro. He was captured and killed after a Spanish ambush
Mestizo A person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestory
Ecomienda A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
New France French colony in North America. Was located around Quebec in Canada
Jamestown Name of the English settlement in North America. Located in Virginia
Pilgrims A group of people who, in 1620, founded the colony of Plymouth in Massachusetts to escape religious persecution in England
Puritans A group of people who sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding a colony at Massachusetts bay in the early 1600s
New Netherlands Dutch colony in North America. Located around the Hudson River, Hudson Bay, and Hudson Straight
French and Indian War A conflict between Britain and France for control of territory in North America, lasting from 1754 to 1763
Metacom Native American ruler that led many attacks on the colonists in Massachusetts
Atlantic Slave Trade The buying, transporting, and selling of Africans for work in the Americas
Triangular Trade The transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in America
Middle Passage The voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies, and later to North and South America, to be sold as slaved-so called because it was considered the middle leg of the triangular trade
Columbian Exchange The global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of America
Capitalism An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit
Joint-Stock Company A business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share their profits
Mercantalism An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Favorable Balance of Trade An economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad that it buys from abroad
Created by: tj03tayl