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Endocrine System

Endocrine System Vocab Chapter 13

Endocrine System is made up of a network of glands. These glands secrete hormones to regulate many bodily functions, including growth and metabolism
Endocrine diseases are... common and usually occur when glands produce an incorrect amount of hormones
Homeostasis Maintains internal environment
Hypothalamus sends chemical signals to pituitary
Endocrine glands Ductless; Secrete hormones directly into bloodstream
Functions of Hormones Control cellular respiration, growth, and reproduction, body fluids,electrolyte balance, secretion of other hormones, behavior patterns, regulate reproductive cycles, growth, development, chemical control
Endocrine Hormones "Ductless" glands secreted into the bloodstream; 2 types: peptides (small proteins) and steroids (lipids)
Messenger Molecules Cell-to-cell communication is carried out via these
Classification of Hormones Modified amino acids /Amino acid derivatives (Epinephrine); Proteins (Insulin, growth hormones); Steroid (Cortisol, estrogen)
Peptide Hormones do not enter the cell directly; bind to receptor proteins in the cell membrane; water soluble so they produce fast responses
Steroid Hormones enter through the cell membrane and bind to receptors inside of the target cell; may directly stimulate transcription of genes to make certain proteins; slower response than peptide hormones
Hypothalamus of the Brain receives sensory info from thalamus; monitors the body for temperature, pH, other conditions; signals pituitary gland if conditions need to be corrected
Pituitary Gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans; it is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain, and rests in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica)
Role of Pituitary Gland "master gland" that signals other glands to produce their hormones when needed
Anterior Pituitary Lobe receives signals from the hypothalamus, and responds by sending out the appropriate hormone to other endocrine glands
Posterior Pituitary Lobe receives oxytocin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the hypothalamus, relays them to the body as necessary
Growth Hormone (GH) cell metabolism and growth
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) stimulates thyroid
Adrenocorticotrpic Hormone (ACTH) stimulates adrenal cortex
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH) stimulates melanocytes
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Females - Stimulates ovarian follicle development; Males - Stimulates sperm cell production
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Females - Stimulates ovulation and progesterone production; Males - Testosterone production
Lactogenic Hormone (prolactin) stimulates milk production in females; may cause decrease in male sex hormones
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Increased water reabsorption in kidney tubules; Deficiency results in diabetes insipidus; Regulated through osmoreceptors; Dehydration causes water conservation
Oxytocin Contraction of uterine smooth muscles; Constriction of mammary gland cells (lactation); Given after childbirth to constrict blood vessels to minimize risk of hemorrhage
Thyroid Gland Located below larynx on either side of trachea
Thyroxine (T4) metabolism
Triiodothyronine (T3) metabolism
Calcitonin regulation of calcium and phosphate concentration
Hypothyroidism "underactive thyroid"; Cretinism, Lowered Metabolic Rate, Myxedema; primary-inadequate function of the gland itself; iodine deficiency is most common
Hyperthyroidism Elevated Metabolism, Graves' Disease, Exophthalmia
Parathyroid Glands Located within the posterior thyroid gland
Parathormone (PTH) stimulates bone cell release of calcium and phosphate
Hyperparathyroidism Breakdown of bone matrix
Adrenal Glands Located on top of each kidney; controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes, including digestion, the immune system, mood and emotions, sexuality, and energy storage
Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Adrenal Cortex Aldosterone, Cortisol, Androgens
Addison's Disease lack of adrenal cortex hormones
Beta Cells insulin production
Alpha Cells glucagon production
Low Blood Glucose Acidosis
High Blood Glucose excess kidney production, dehydration
Diabetes Mellitus insufficient insulin production
Testosterone Development of male reproduction structures and sex characteristics
Estrogen and Progesterone Development of female reproductive organs and sex characteristics; Control menstrual cycle
Thymus Gland Located behind the sternum; Secretes thymosin; Important for T cell production; Thymus shrinks as we age
Pineal Gland Located in the brain near the thalamus
Melatonin Inhibits reproductive functions; Regulates body rhythms
Serotonin neurotransmitter and vasoconstrictor; Stimulates smooth muscle contractions
Primary Hypothyroidism inadequate function of the gland itself; iodine deficiency is most common cause
Central Hypothyroidism not enough stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone
Hyperthyroidism Graves' Disease; toxic thyroid adenoma; toxic multinodular goiter; fast heart beat; unintended weight loss, nervous system tremor
Graves' Disease ophthalmopathy may cause the eyes to look enlarged because the eye muscles swell and push the eye forward
Graves' Disease Diagnosis is confirmed by blood tests that show a decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level and elevated T4 and T3 levels
Graves' Disease Treatment Antithyroid drugs; Beta-blocker; Surgery; diet
Congenital Hypothyroidism Cretinism; Poor length growth is apparent as early as the first year of life; One of the cause from Dwarfism
Goiter simple, nontoxic; hyperplasia of thyroid gland; PE plus blood test
Thyrotoxicosis An uncommon complication is thyroid storm in which an event such as an infection results in worsening symptoms such as confusion and a high temperature and often results in death
Primary Hyperparathyroidism results from a hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands, there is oversecretion of PTH
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism is due to physiological secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid glands in response to hypocalcemia . The most common causes are vitamin D deficiency and chronic kidney failure
Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism is seen in patients with long-term secondary; leads to hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands and a loss of response to serum calcium levels; most often seen in patients with chronic renal failure
Hyperparathyroidism Symptoms most common is kidney stones with other potential symptoms including weakness, depression, bone pains, confusion, and increased urination; increase the risk of weak bones
Hyperparathyroidism Treatment Primary: surgery (with symptoms) and Secondary: underlying cause
Hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands with underproduction of parathyroid hormone; Low level of blood Calcium
Hypoparathyroidism Symptoms Cramping, twitching of muscles, tetany (involuntary muscle contraction), seizures, heart beat irregularities, spasm of the bronchi
Severe Hypocalcaemia a potentially life-threatening condition, is treated as soon as possible with intravenous calcium
Addison’s Disease primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism; adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones
Addison’s Disease Symptoms low glucose, low sodium, weight loss, dehydration, increase pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes
Addison’s Disease Treatment hormone replacement therapy to correct the levels of steroid hormones
Conn's Disease primary hyperaldosteronism; is excess production of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands resulting in low renin levels
Conn's Disease Causes Bilateral idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (66%); Adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) (33%); Primary (unilateral) adrenal hyperplasia—(2%)
Conn's Disease Diagnosis screening and renin and aldosterone are measured
Conn's Disease Treatment For people with hyperplasia of both glands spironolactone or eplerenone; adrenalectomy
Cushing's Syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol; involve progressive obesity and skin changes;
Cushing's Syndrome Symptoms high blood pressure, abdominal obesity but with thin arms and legs, reddish stretch marks, a round red face, a fat lump between the shoulders, weak muscles, weak bones, acne, and fragile skin that heals poorly
Cushing's Syndrome Causes medications called glucocorticoids, also commonly known as steroids or prednisone used in high doses over an extended period of time
Cushing's Syndrome Complications osteoporosis, HTN, Type 2 Diabetes, frequent or unusual infections, loss of muscle mass and strength
Cushing's Syndrome Diagnosis and Treatment Diagnosis: Urine and blood test, saliva and imaging tests, Treatment: reducing corticosteroid use and surgery
Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands; secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent
Pheochromocytoma Symptoms and Treatment Elevated heart rate and blood pressure, resistant arterial hypertension; Treatment: surgical removal adrenal glands
Type 1 Diabetes results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown
Type 2 Diabetes begins with insulin resistance, as the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop; the primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise
Gestational Diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood-sugar levels
Symptoms of Untreated Diabetes polyuria (increased urination); polydipsia (increased thirst); polyphagia (increased hunger); weight loss
Low Blood Sugar common with type 1 and type 2 DM; feelings of unease, sweating, trembling, and increased appetite, confusion, changes in behavior such as aggressiveness, seizures, unconsciousness, and (rarely) permanent brain damage or death in severe cases
Diabetic Ketoacidosis metabolic disturbance chara by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, the smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing, and in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness; mainly in type I DM
Hyperosmolar Nonketotic State more common in type 2 DM and is mainly the result of dehydration
Diabetic Retinopathy is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye, and can result in gradual vision loss and blindness
Diabetic Nephropathy can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplant
Diabetic Neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes.the symptoms can include numbness, tingling, pain, and altered pain sensation, which can lead to damage to the skin
Diabetic Foot Ulcers can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring amputation
Diabetic with peripheral vascular disease doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, and about 75% of deaths in diabetics are due to coronary artery disease. Other "macrovascular" diseases are stroke, and peripheral vascular disease
Diabetes Insipidus excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely dilute urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the concentration of the urine
Two types of Diabetes Insipidus CDI-a defect in ADH production; NDI-a defect in the kidneys' response to ADH
Hypopituitarism decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain
Hypopituitarism Treatment Hormones replacement; Surgical removal adenoma(common cause)
Created by: wallace263
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