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Endocrine

A&P II - chapter 13

TermDefinition
Endocrine system Ductless glands - secretes hormones directly into bloodstream
Pituitary gland "Master gland" secretes hormones that control functions of other glands (hypophysis)
Anterior pituitary gland Adenohypophysis - secrets growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone,thyroid stimulating hormone, lactogenic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocytes-stimulating hormone
Posterior pituitary gland Neuropypophysis - secretes antiduretic hormone, oxytocin
Growth hormone GH aka somatotropin hormone (STH) - regulates growth of bones, muscles and other body tissues
Adrenocorticotropic ACTH Stimulates normal growth and development of adrenal cortex and secretion of corticosteroids
Thyroid stimulating hormones TSH Promotes and maintains normal growth and development of thyroid gland - stimulates secretions of thyroid hormones -secreted by pituitary gland
lactogenic hormone LTH aka prolactin - promotes development of breasts during pregnancy & stimulates secretion of milk from breasts after delivery
follicle-stimulating hormone FSH stimulates secretion of estrogen and production of eggs in ovaries - also stimulates production of sperm in testes
luteinizing hormone LH stimulates female ovulation and secretion of testosterone
melanoctye-stimulation hormone MSH controls intensity of pigmentation
antidiuretic hormone ADH aka vasopressin - decreases excretion of large amts of urine from body by increasing reabsorption of water by renal tubules
oxytocin OT stimulates contractions of uterus during childbirth and release of milk from breasts
glucose simplest form of sugar in the body
cortex outer region of any organ or structure
complications of hypercalcemia muscle weakness, atrophy, nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal pain, increased irritability of heart muscle (arrhythmia), bone tenderness, fragility - high levels of calcium in blood and low levels in bones
complications of hypocalcemia nerve and muscle weakness w/muscle spasm or tetany
tetany state of continual contraction of muscles
endocrinologist specialist in endocrine system
acromegaly condition of pituitary gland AFTER puberty - enlargement and elongation of bones of face, jaw and extremities
polyuria excessive uriniation
glycosuria sugar in urine
hypoglycemia low blood sugar
Grave's disease hyperthyroidism - high body metabolism - hypertrophy of thyroid gland
acute pancreatitis chronic destructive inflammation condition of pancreas
HBA1c test shows average level of glucose in blood in last several mos - for diabetes mellitis types I & II
goiter hyperplasia of thyroid gland
gestational diabetes symptoms of diabetes appear during pregnancy
diabetes mellitius insulin disorder associated with pancreas
adenoma glandular tumor
adenopathy disease of the gland characterized by enlargement
polyphagia excessive eating/hunger
virilism development of masculine traits in women - due to dysfunction of adrenal gland
GTT test glucose tolerance test - how well your body cells are able to absorb sugar after you ingest given amt of sugar
FBS fasting blood sugar - used to diagnose diabetes - measure blood glucose levels after a period of fasting
thyroid function test measures blood levels of T3, T4 and TSH hormones
thyroid scan examination that tests determines position, size, shape and physiological function of thyroid
NIDDM non-insulin dependent diabetes - diabetes mellitius type 2
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone - secreted by anterior pituitary gland - test measures concentration of TSH in blood
adrenalectomy surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands
diabetic retionpathy disorder of blood vessels of the retina where capillaries of the retina bulge
dwarfism abnormal underdevelopment of body caused by under secretion of pituitary gland - HGH during puberty
Cushing's syndrome condition of adrenal gland - excessive amounts of cortisol or ACTH in the blood "moon face" edema, obesity, buffalo hump
pineal gland pine-cone shaped gland - supports body's biological clock - secretes melatonin
thyroid gland secretes trilodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) - helps control metabolism and body temperature
parathyroid glands secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH) - aka parathormone - regulates level of calcium in blood
adrenal cortex secretes gonadocorticoids - secondary sex characteristics
adrenal medulla secretes catecholamines - epinephrine = adrenaline which activates sympathetic nervous system and glycolysis and norepinephrine = noradrenaline which constricts arteries and vessels to raise blood pressure
pancreas islets of Langerhans secrets glucagon (glycolysis) when hypoglycemic and insulin (glycogenesis)
ovaries secretes estrogen - maturation of ovum, uterine lining, secondary sex characteristics & progesterone - responsible for changes w/in uterus in anticipation of fertilized ovum
testes secretes testosterone - secondary sex characteristics with onset of puberty, maturation of sperm. Testes responsible for production of sperm and secretion of androgens (male steroid hormones)
gigantism occurs BEFORE puberty - overgrowth of body's tissues due to hypersecretion of HGH
exophthalmia unnatural protrusion of the eyes - result of Grave's or hypothyroidism
myxedema most severe form of hypothyroidism
hyperparathyroidism aka hypercalcemia - leads to high levels of calcium in blood and low levels in bones
Addison's disease autoimmune disease where adrenal cortex fails to secret enough mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids
diabetes mellitus type 1 IDDM - usually occurs before 30 yrs, sudden onset, insulin dependent
diabetes mellitus type 2 NIDDM - occurs after 30 yrs in obese individuals, controlled through diet and exercise (not insulin)
polydipsia excessive thirst
hirsutism excessive body hair in male distribution pattern in women
Created by: gcjlentz
 

 



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