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History Exam 2016 CS

QuestionAnswer
Jamestown first permanent english settlement in the americas located in present day Virginia
House of Burgesses the first representative government in america
Plymouth Where the Pilgrims from England sailed to on the Mayflower
Mayflower Compact The first constitution of America
Debtor Someone who owes money
Slave Code The rights of slaves and their owners
Mercantilism Theory that a nation’s economic strength came from keeping a strict control
Puritans English Protestants
Thomas Hooker A puritan colonial leader; founded Connecticut
Roger Williams A Puritan who did not believe in punishing based on religion so he founded Rhode Island
Anne Hutchinson A puritan spiritual advisor
William Penn Founded Pennsylvania
James Oglethorpe Founded Georgia to give debtors a second chance
Town Meetings Meeting in colonial New England where settlers discussed and voted on issues
Slaves People who are legal property and forced to obey their owner
Indentured Servants People who are working off debt as a cost of traveling and setting up their business
The Great Awakening A religious movement in English colonies in the early 1700s
Education in the Colonies The setup where New England had Tax Supported Public Schools
The Enlightenment A movement in Europe in the 1600s and the 1700s that emphasized the use of reason
John Peter Zenger A journalist who was arrested for criticizing the governor of New York
The French and Indian War A war that took place from 1754 to 1763 between England and France
Benjamin Franklin One of the founding fathers
The Albany Plan of Union A proposal by Benjamin Franklin to create one government for the 13 colonies
Proclamation of 1763 A law forbidding English colonists to settle West of the Appalachian Mountains
Sugar Act A tax on molasses; greatly affecting rum trade
Stamp Act A 1765 law that placed new duties on legal documents and newspapers; almanacs; playing cards; and dice
Petition A formal written request to someone in authority; signed by a group of people
Boycott Refusal to buy certain goods or services
Writs of Assistance A legal document that allowed British customs officials inspect a ship’s cargo without giving a reason
Abigail Adams Wife and advisor of John Adams
John Adams Lawyer for the abused British soldiers in the Boston Massacre; 2nd US President
Sam Adams A founding father; American spokesman; and cousin of John Adams
The Boston Tea Party A 1773 protest in which colonists dressed as Indians dumped British tea into The Boston Harbor
The Intolerable Acts A series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for The Tea Party
The First Continental Congress A 1774 meeting in Philadelphia of delegates from 12 colonies
Militia An army of citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency
Lexington and Concord Where the first shots of the American Revolution were fired
The Olive Branch Petition A peace petition sent to King George by colonial delegates after the battle of Lexington and Concord; declaring their loyalty to the king and asking him to repeal the Intolerable Acts
Fort Ticonderoga A British Fort that Benedict Arnold and The Green Mountain Boys captured for weapons
Patriot Colonists who favored war against Britain
Loyalist Colonists who remained loyal to Britain
The Battle of Bunker Hill In 1775; first major war of the revolution
Dorchester Heights Fortified to deceive the British; led to the American capture of Boston
Blockade The shutting down of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out
Mercenary A soldier who fights merely for pay
The Declaration of Independence A 1776 document that stated that 143 English colonies were free and Independent
The Battle of Long Island A 1776 battle in New York in which 1.400 American soldiers were killed; wounded; or killed
The Battle of Trenton A 1776 battle in New Jersey in which George Washington's troops captured a Hessian encampment in a surprise attack
The Battle of Saratoga In 1777; the first major American victory in the Revolution; which ended the British threat to New England
Ally A nation that works with another nation for a common purpose
General Nathanial Greene Led the Southern wing of The Continental Army
General Daniel Morgan Second in command of the southern wing of the Continental Army
The Battle of Cowpens A 1781 battle where the Americans used guerrilla tactics to win; they tricker the British into thinking they were retreating over a hill but they had more troops waiting over the hill
Guerilla tactics a soldier who uses hit and run tactics
The Battle of Yorktown A 1781 battle where the Americans defeated General Cornwallis with the help from the French who supplied them with weapons
General Cornwallis The British commander at The Battle of Yorktown
French help at Yorktown The French supplied the Americans with weapons for the war
Terms of the Treaty of Paris A 1763 agreement between Britain and France that ended the French and Indian War; and marked the end of French Power in North America; peace treaty between US and Britain; it recognised the USA as a independent nation
Constitution A document that sets out the law; principles; organization; and processes of government
Articles of Confederation The first american constitution; passed in 1777; which created a loose alliance of 13 independent states
Money problems after war After the war Britain spent a lot on winning the war so then they had to add taxes
Northwest Ordinance A 1787 article that set up a government for the Northwest territory; guaranteed basic rights to settlers; and outlaws slavery there
Shay’s Rebellion A 1786 revolt in Massachusetts led by farmers in reaction to the high taxes
Constitution Convention A gathering of state representatives on May 25th 1787; to revise the Articles of Confederation
James Madison Wrote the Bill of Rights; or the 10 amendments
Virginia Plan A plan at the Constitutional Convention; favored by larger states; that called for a strong national government with three branches and a two-chamber legislature
Legislative Plan A group of people who have the power to make laws
Executive Branch The branch of government that carries out laws
Judicial Branch The branch of government that decides if laws are carried out fairly
New Jersey Plan A plan at the Constitutional Convention; favored by smaller states; that called for three branches of government with a single chamber legislature
Roger Sherman A founding father who helped to make The Great Compromise
The Great Compromise A plan at the Constitutional Convention that settled differences between larger and smaller states
Three-Fifths Compromise The compromise that slaves would over all count for ⅗ for population
Slave Trade Compromise Compromise Congress from banning slavery before 1808
Republic A system of government in which citizens choose representatives to govern them
Habeas Corpus The right that no person can be held in prison without first being charged by a specific crime
John Locke An enlightenment thinker that Americans adopted ideas from
Federalists A supported of the Constitution; who favored strong Federal or National Government
Antifederalists People who opposed the Constitution and a strong National Government
Bill of Rights The first 10 amendments to the American Constitution
Created by: Willv