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Chapter 10

TermDefinition
Muhammad profit of the Islamic faith, born in Mecca , worked among the Bedouins, became a prophet at 40 when he was asked by an angel to become God's messenger
Mecca a trading and religious center where the prophet Muhammad was born
Bedouins nomadic herders
Yathrib the city to which Muhammad and his followers fled in 622
Medina formerly the city of Yathrib, where thousand s adopted Islam and formed strong, peaceful communities
Hijra The journey Muhammad and his followers took from Mecca to Yathrib/Medina
Kaaba the holiest Islamic site that Muhammad dedicated to Allah upon his return to Mecca
Quran the sacred text of Islam believed to be the direct word of God as told to Muhammad; all Muslims study it to learn about God's will and living a good life
mosques where Muslims gather to pray
The FIve Pillars of Islam [essay question] declaring faith, praying five times daily, giving charity to the poor, fasting during their holy month, and making the hajj
hajj pilgrimage to Mecca; one of the five pillars of Islam
jihad to struggle in God's service; another duty of muslims
Sharia a body of laws that interprets the Quran and applies religious principles to legal situations, helps Muslim societies govern daily life
Abu Bakr the first caliph, united all Arab tribes as Muslims which led to Arabs defeating the Persian empire and parts of the Byzantine empire
Shiites Muslims that believe Muhammad's successors must be descendants of his son-in-law and religious leaders who interpret the Quran
Sunnis Muslims that believe male Muslims from Muhammad's tribe can lead without performing religious functions; about 90 percent of Muslims
Sufis a third group of Muslims who meditate and fast to gain communion with God
Umayyad a Sunni caliphate that directed conquests that extended Muslim rule from Spain to the Indus River Valley
Abbasid dynasty founded by Abu al-Abbas; ended conquests and supported education and learning; enjoyed a golden age with a more efficient government and a beautiful new capital in the former Persian empire
Baghdad the new capital of the Abbasid dynasty
minarets slender towers that were often found on mosques
sultan name for rulers amongst the Seljuk Turks ; their sultan took power from the Abbasids by 1055 but kept the Abbasid caliph as a figurehead
social mobility the ability to move up in social class through religious, scholarly, or military achievements
Firdawsi one of the great Muslim poets who told the history of Persia
Omar Khayyám one of the great Muslim poets who wrote about fate and life in The Rubáiyát
calligraphy the art of beautiful handwriting that Muslim artists used for decoration on buildings and in books
Ibn Rushd a Muslim philosopher who believed that knowledge should meet the standards of reason
Ibn Khaldun Muslim thinker who studied history scientifically and advised others in avoiding errors
al-Khwarizmi a Muslim mathematician who pioneered the study of algebra
Muhammad al-Razi chief physician in the hospital at Baghdad who wrote books on diseases and medical practices
Ibn Sina a famous Persian physician who compiled an encyclopedia of medical knowledge
Delhi capital of India
rajahs local Hindu rulers
Sikhism a new religion that is a blend of Muslim and Hindu beliefs
Babur led Turkish and Mongol armies into northern India to establish the Mughal dynasty
Mughal a dynasty that lasted until 1857
Akbar Babur's grandson; known as Akbar the Great; established a strong central government that had paid officials, modernized the army, encouraged international trade, allowed Hindus to work in government, promoted peace through religious rolerance
Nur Jahan Akbar's son's wife who managed the government skillfully and supported Indian culture; was the most powerful woman in Indian history until the twentieth century
Shah Jahan Akbar's grandson who ruled when Mughal literature, art, and architecture were at their height
Taj Mahal a tomb Shah Jahan' built for his wife
Ottomans Turkish-speaking nomads who expanded into Asia Minor and the Balkan Peninsula by the 1300s, successful in capturing Constantinople in 1453
Istanbul formerly the city of Constantinople that became the capital of the Ottoman empire
Suleiman ruled over the Ottoman empire leading to a golden age; expanded the empire into Asia, Africa, and Europe; had absolute power but a council helped him govern
janizaries an elite force of the Ottoman army
Safavids united an empire in Persia (modern Iran); Shiite Muslims who fought with Sunni Ottomans to the west and the Mughals in India to the east
shah Safavid term for king
Shah Abbas the greatest shah in the Safavid empire; created a strong military and developed military alliances with Europeans; lowered taxes and encouraged industry; tolerated other religions and built a capital at Isfahan
Isfahan the capital of the Safavid empire which became a center for silk trading
Qajars a new dynasty that won control of Iran
Tehran city made the capital of Iran by the Qajars
Created by: nstag