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Digestive System

A&P II Chapter 15

TermDefinition
another name for digestive system gastrointestinal tract
medical term for lip cheil/o
medical term for gall bladder cholecyst/o
medical term for bile duct choled/o; cholangi/o
medical term for stomach gastr/o
medical term for liver hepat/o
papille upper surface of tongue which contains taste buds
three pairs of salivary glands parotids, submandibulars, sublinguals
where does esophagus receive food from pharynx
stomach contains fundus, body, pylorus, lesser curvature, greater curvature, pyloric sphincter, rugae
stomach secretes pepsin and hydrochloric acid for digestion
accessory organs of digestion salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
appendicitis inflammation of the vermiform appendix
peritonitis inflammation of peritoneum
cholelithiasis stone in gall bladder
choledocholithiasis stone in common bile duct
chyme liquid like structure of partially digested food in the stomach
gingiva gums
gingivitis inflammation of the gingiva (gums) that can lead to bleeding gums
glycogenesis conversion of simple sugars (glucose) into a complex form of sugar (starch) for storage in the liver
hematemesis vomiting of blood
emesis vomitus - material expelled from stomach
hiatal hernia protrusion of stomach through diaphragm due to enlarge cardiac sphincter
another name for hiatal hernia diaphragmatic hernia
hyperemisis severe vomiting
umbilical hernia protrusion of intestine from umbilicus due to abdominal wall weakness
bolus food becomes a ball like mass after chewing and mixed with saliva
borborygmi gurgling, tinkling sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis - heard with a stethoscope
peristalsis muscle movement - wavelike contractions
cheiloplasty surgical repair of the lips
colostomy surgical creation of new opening in abdominal wall through which feces is expelled
appendectomy surgical removal of inflamed appendix
cholecystectomy surgical removal of gall bladder
colonoscopy visualization of lining of the large intestine (up to the ileoseceal joint) using fiber optic coloscope
stool analysis for occult blood microscopic examination of feces for blood - not visible by naked eye
icterus yellow discoloration of skin, mucous membrane and sclera of the eyes caused by high amounts of bilirubin
another name for icterus jaundice
aphagia inability to swallow
melena abnormal black, tarry stool containing digested blood
glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen into glucose by the liver - in response to low blood sugar levels
glycogen form of sugar stored in body cells, primarily the liver
insulin hormone that makes it possible for glucose to pass from the blood through the cell membranes to be used for energy
hernia protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through the wall of a cavity
hemorrhoids vericostus or engorgement of veins in the lower rectum
femoral hernia hernia near the groin area
digestive enzymes contained in saliva amylase (carbs), lipase (fat)
villi finger-like projections that surround blood capillaries which function in the absorption of nutrients
gall bladder stores bile secreted from liver - releases into stomach only when needed
ase breakdown/enzyme
digestive system structures pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (30 feet long)
three parts of small intestine duodenum (connected to sm intestine), jejunum, ileum (connected to large intestine)
parts of large intestine cecum (attaches to sm intestine), ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus
cecum part of large intestine that attaches to small intestine - appendix hangs from lower portion of cecum
pancreas functions as exocrine gland to manufacture digestive juices, insulin and glucagon
mastication chewing
deglutition swallowing
GERD gastro esophageal reflux disease - reflux of gastric contents into esophagus
IBS irritable bowel syndrome - spastic colon - increased motility of small or large intestinal wall
abdominal ultrasound use of sound waves to visualize internal organs of abdomen
abdominocentesis aka paracentesis - surgical puncture or trocar into abdominal cavity to remove excess fluid
herniorrhaphy surgical repair of hernia using sutures, mesh or wire
stool culture collection of stool specimen placed on culture medium and allowed to grow to identify pathogens
stool guaiac test on a stool specimen using guaiac as a reagent which identifies the presence of blood (the card that turns blue that Doreen showed us in class)
aphthous stomatitis aka canker sore - inflammatory noninfectious ulcerated lesion on lips, tongue, inside cheeks of mouth
achalasia decreased mobility of lower two-thirds of esophagus
hepatitis inflammation of the liver
anus sphincter muscle that elminates feces
digestion breakdown of complex foods into simpler forms
elimination act of removing materials from the body
defecation elimination of feces from the digestive tract (anus)
Created by: gcjlentz
 

 



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