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Words & meanings


Enlarged features, particularly the face and hands; caused by hypersecretion of (pituitary) Growth Hormone, after puberty. Acromegaly
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic
Addison's Disease Chronic disorder of the adrenal glands caused by deficiency of cortical hormones.
Adenoma Tumor of the gland.
ADH Antidiuretic Hormone-Vasopressin: promotes reabsorption of water in the kidneys. Released by posterior pituitary.
Adrenal Cortex Outer section of the adrenal gland which secretes steroids.
Adrenalectomy Surgical excision of an adrenal gland.
Adrenal Glands Two bean-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys which secrete steroid and sex hormones.
Adrenal Medulla Inner section of the adrenal gland which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Aldosterone Steroid produced in the adrenal cortex. Is essential to life. Maintains sodium and potassium levels.
Atrophy Lack of development
Cortisol A glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex.
Cushing's Syndrome Disorder caused by hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex, resulting in excessive production of steroids. Causing moonface, fatigue, high blood pressure and hirsutism.
Diabetes Insipidus Disorder more common in the young, caused by inadequate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone, which causes excessive thirst and excessive secretion of urine.
Diabetes Mellitus A common pancreatic disorder involving insulin secretion into the blood, either in too much or too little quantities, complete insulin deficiency in children caused by destruction of beta cells.
Diuresis Increased excretion of urine.
Dwarfism A condition of being abnormally small; may be hereditary or an endocrine dysfunction.
Endocrinology The study of ductless glands, their secretions, and their function of homeostasis.
Epinephrine Adrenaline-produced in the adrenal medulla. Increases heart rate, fat metabolism for energy, and dilates the bronchial tubes; raises blood pressure.
Exophthalmos Protrusion of eyes due to swelling in tissues; often associated with Graves' Disease.
FBS Fasting Blood Sugar.
FSH Follicle Stimulating Hormone.
GH Growth Hormone. Also known as PGH.
Gigantism Abnormal overgrowth of the entire body caused by hypersecretion of Pituitary Growth Hormone before puberty.
Glucogenesis Formation of glucose from glycogen.
Glucagon Hormone secreted by the pancreas which increases the amount of glucose in the blood.
Glucocorticoids Steroids in the adrenal cortex that influence the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and protiens.
Glycogen Substance in which carbohydrates are stored in the liver for future conversion to sugar.
Glucose The most important carbohydrate(sugar) in body metabolism.
Glucosuria Glucose in the urine.
Graves' Disease Disorder of the thyroid-hyperthyroidism. Characterized by abnormal weight loss, muscular weakness, and emotional instability.
GTT Glucose Tolerance Test
HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
HDL High Density Lipoproteins
Hirsutism A condition of abnormal hairiness, especially in females.
Homestasis A state of stable internal environmentof the body.
Hormones Secretions of endocrine glands which regulate function of the body.
Hyperglycemia Excessive amount of sugar in the blood.
Hyperinsulinism Excessive amount of insulin in the blood-insulin shock.
Hypersecretion Excessive secretion.
Hypocalcemia Abnormally low amount of calcium in the blood.
Hypoglycemia Too little sugar in the blood.
Hypogonadism Under-development of internal secretions of male sex glands.
Hypokalemia Extreme depletion of potassium in the blood usually lost in diuresis.
Hyponatremia Extreme depletion of sodium in the blood, usually through diuresis.
Hyposecretion Inadequate secretion.
ICF Intracellular fluid.
ICSH Interstitial cell stimulating hormone.
Insulin A hormone secreted by the Islets of Langerhans. Essential for metabolism of blood sugar. A hormone that lowers blood glucose levels by enabling the cell to take glucose in. Can also be made synthetically and given by injection.
Islets of Langerhans Clusters of cells in the pancreas which produce insulin and glucagon.
ITT Insulin Tolerance Test
Ketoacidosis An acute stage of diabetes mellitus characterized by hypotension and, eventually coma.
LDL Low Density Lipoproteins
LH Luteinizing Hormone
LTH Lactogenic Hormone (prolactin)
Metabolism Process in which substances are broken down or built up during chemical reactions that are necessary to maintain life.
MSH Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, (melanin)
Mineralcorticoids Hormones in the adrenal cortex that regulate water and mineral salts (electrolytes) in the body.
Norepinephrine Noradrenaline; produced in the adrenal medulla. Increases blood pressure and constricts vessels.
NPH Neutral Protamine Hagedorn - a synthetic insulin.
Obesity Excessive accumulation of fat in the body.
Oral Hypoglycemics Medications used to stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin.
Pancreas An organ that contains group of cells called the Islets of Langerhans which produce endocrine secretions, such as insulin and glucagon.
Parathyroid Four separate glands that are located on the posterior glands surfaces of the lobes of the thyroid gland. Main purpose to increase blood calcium levels.
PGH Pituitary Growth Hormone
Pineal Gland Pine-cone shaped gland that is attached to the posterior part of the third ventricle of the brain which secretes melatonin.
Pituitary Gland Hypophisis; pea-shaped gland that is located at the base of the brain.
Polydipsia Excessive thirst
Polyphagia A condition of eating abnormally large amounts of food.
Polyuria Excessive secretion of urine.
PTH Parathyroid Hormone
RAIU Radioactive Iodine Uptake Test on the thyroid gland.
Serum Glucose Tests Blood tests to aid in the diagnosis of insulin deficiency.
Somatotropin Human growth hormone found in the anterior pituitary lobe. Released by posterior pituitary.
Thyroid Echogram Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland.
Thyroidectomy Surgical excision of the thyroid gland.
Thyroid Gland Largest gland in the endcrine system. Located in the neck just below the larnyx. Appears as two lobes divided by an isthmus.
Thyrotoxic Thyroid poisoning
Thyrotoxicosis Abnormal condition of poisoning of the thyroid gland.
Thyroxine(t4) One of the two major hormones produced by the thyroid. Regulates metabolism and energy levels.
Triiodothyronine(t3) One of the two major hormones produced, stored and released by the thyroid gland.
TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone.
Created by: Goldilocks