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Urinalysis

UA/Micro - Chapter 25

QuestionAnswer
what are the advantages of urine testing? urine easily available, non-invasive, doesn't require special equipment
what is urinalysis? physical, chemical and microscopic analysis of urine
what is the composition of urine? 95% water, 5% dissolved substances - urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus
what pathological substances are found in urine? glucose, ketones, pus, bacteria, albumin, blood, casts
what is POL? physician's office laboratory
What is RUA? routine urinalysis
What is CPE? complete physical exam
What are procedures of specimen collection? collect sufficient amount (10ml), properly labeled, avoid collecting from woman with menses, make sure pt understands how to collect
What is important if pt is doing a home collection of urine? make sure pt uses clean vessel or may result in inaccurate results
What to do when cannot test urine within 1-2 hours? refridgerate
What are different types of containers? non-sterile, sterile, 24 hour collection container
What are most important things on label of container? pt's name, DOB (never put label on the lid)
random collection? no special prep, non-sterile container, avoid collecting during menses, used when only CHEMICAL analysis needed
first morning specimen? first void of morning, small amts of abnormal substances easily detected, for routine urinalysis and pregnancy tests
catheterization collection method? invasive & somewhat painful, MUST be placed in sterile container
clean catch midstream specimen? used especially for C&S (culture & sensitivity), clean area prior to to eliminate normal flora from urethra and meatus, instruct pt to urinate into toilet & catch flow of urine
24 hour collection? container w/preservative added, pt instructed to void and discard first am on first day - ALL urine after is collected over next 24 hour, must be kept in fridge
fasting/timed specimen collection? prevents interference from anything consumed, collect after fasting overnight or 2 hours after a meal, for glucose tolerance testing
what is renal threshold? point at which a substance reaches a concentration in the blood high enough for the kidneys to start removing it and is detected in urine - usually indicates abnormal condition
what is aliquot? portion of whole specimen when 24-hour collection done
what is quality control? QC - procedures that monitor processing of laboratory specimens
what is routine urinalysis? RUA - most commonly performed test, specimen must be tested w/in 1-2 hours (or refrigerate)
what are three parts/types of urinalysis? physical, chemical, microscopic
what is physical examination? color, clarity, specific gravity (with dipstick)
what is color produced by? urochrome
how much urine is necessary for testing? at least 10-12mls
turbid? cloudy
what is specific gravity? measure how dilute or concentrated urine is - normal 1.003-1.030 - lower the number the more dilute
what color is diluted urine? clear - colorless
what is chemical examination? reagent strip or dipstick, timing of each reading is critical for accurate results, read instructions, check expiration dates
clinitest presence of sugars - lactose, glucose
acetest ketones (purple will appear on reagent strip)
SSA (sulfosalicylic acid)tests for? protein - if present urine will turn cloudy/turbid
ictotest bilirubin - reagent strip will turn purple
microscopic culture & sensitivity(C&S) package centrifuge necessary, separates supernatant and sediment, viewed under microscope
what is supernatant? clear liquid that remains after centrifuging
what is sediment? solid material in bottom of test tube after centrifuging
color when blood in urine? reddish
color when bile in urine? yellow-brown or greenish
color when fat droplets in urine? milky color
how to store reagent strips? cool, dry area with cap tightly closed
what are casts? cylindrical structures - generally indicates diseased condition
normal color of urine? straw to yellow
color of very concentrated urine? dark yellow/amber
color when vitamin B is present? bright yellow
color when red cells present/hematuria? cloudy pink, red or reddish brown
color when RBC's aged and oxidized? brown
color when liver condition/various medications present? black
Created by: gcjlentz