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Ancient Civilization

Ancient Mesopotamia

TermDefinition
Mesopotamia Land between the rivers
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers of Mesopotamia
Persian Gulf Body of water the Tigris and Euphrates empty into
Iraq Present day country of Mesopotamia
Shatt-Al-Arab Land where Tigris and Euphrates meet in Mesopotamia
Religion, Government, Stable Food Supply, Arts, Written Language, Technology, Social Structure Seven characteristics of a civilization
Fertile Crescent Area of Southwestern Asia, named because of crescent moon shape and its fertile soil.
Cuneiform Sumerian form of writing using wedge shape design
Sumer First civilization in Mesopotamia. Located in the southern area of the Fertile Crescent.
Monotheistic Belief in one god
Rawlinson Deciphered Cuneiform found at Behistan
Plow, wheel, cart, arch, sailbota, irrigation system inventions of the people of Sumer
Sixty math of Sumer based on this number
Cradle of Civilization Sumer is called this, thought that Sumer was the first civilization
Polytheistic Belief in many gods
Sargon the Great Created the first Empire. King of Akkad conquered the many city states of Sumer and Mesopotamia
Ziggurats Large layered step like temples use by Mesopotamians. A shrine to the god of the city state was the top layer
City-States City with a government and the surrounding farmland independent from other political units
Empire A large area that includes several groups of people and under one single government
Civilization Includes a wider geographic region that share cultural characteristics
Irrigation System Using canals and levees (dirt dams) for watering crops
Hierachy To divide or put groups into categories; economic; political or social
Cultural Diffusion The spreading of ideas and culture to others. Trade spreads cultural ideas, technology, to people that are in contact with each other.
Akkadian Empire First Empire led by King Sargon of Akkad.
Assyrian Empire Large Empire that spread from the Persian Gulf to Thebes in Egypt. Know for cruelty and military tactics. Used battering rams, towers, tunnels, and iron weapons.
Calendar A dating system of months
B.C./B.C.E. Before Christ or Before the Common Era
A.D./C.E. Anno Domini, Common Era
Period/Era Blocks of time
Pre History time before writing
Ancient History Time after the invention of writing c. 4500 BCE 0 1500 BCE
Primary Source Account of a person that witnessed or experienced the event.
Secondary Source Account of an event from someone that was not at the event compiled information.
Middle East/Southwest Asia First area where man farmed
Agriculture Refers to planting crops and domesticating animals for man's use.
River Valleys (Settlements) Provides for water for food, irrigation, transportation for trade, and fertile soil. Provides good place for settlement, water, irrigation, food, seasons for crops to grow, shelter, clothing for the population.
Hammurabi Leader of the Babylonia Empire. Created Hammurabi's Code of Law.
Hammurabi's Code of Law Laws that unified a region. Laws were written down for all to see. Laws applied to all people, but punishment varied based on social classes. Retribution laws: eye for an eye.
Berringa Land Bridge Theory that man crossed into North America by walking over a land bridge from Asia, following the herds for food during the Ice Age.
Neolithic Age Period of time when man began to use agriculture. New Stone.
Paleolithic Age Period of time when man was a hunter gatherer, lived in small groups, used fire and stone tools. Old Stone.
Stone Age Time period when man used stone and bone for tools and weapons.
Metals/Bronze Age Use of metals ends the Stone Age.
Agricultural Revolution/ Neolithic Revolution Occurred when man began to farm and crated a stable/steady food supply. Led to permanent shelters, communities, specialization of jobs, and trade.
Created by: jthigpen