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Intro to Bacteria

Chapter 2 Micro Exam 2

which bacteria are most commonly obligate anaerobes (main ones)? peptostreptococci, clostridium, bacteroides, porphyromonas
the majority of human pathogens are? facultative anaerobes (g+ cocci, g- bacilli)
less common human pathogens are? obligate aerobes and/or g- cocci, g+ bacilli
what are some of the main facultative anaerobes that cause pathogenicity in humans? staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli, Salmonella, etc
AEROBIC BACTERIA, G+ bacilli include? Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Corneybacterium diphtheriae
AEROBIC bacteria, G+ cocci? staphylococcus, streptococcus, enterococcus (the common aerobic gram positive pathogens)
AEROBIC bacteria, G- bacilli? E coli, Pseudomonas, Salmonella (the common aerobic gram negative pathogens)
AEROBIC, bacteria, G- cocci? Neisseria (not a common pathogen)
Ecoli, pseudomonas, salmonella? G- bacilli, common pathogens, aerobes
Staph, Strep, Enterococci? common pathogens, g+ cocci aerobic
Listeria monocytogenes most commonly causes what? meningitis and bacteremia
Listeria monocytogenes is commonly found where? animal products/animals
common in animals/animal products, opportunistic pathogen, commonly manifests as bacteremia and meningitis? Listeria monocytogenes (g+ bacillus, aerobe)
spore formers, commonly found in the environment, rarely produce disease bc the natural concentrations are low, gram + Bacillus species (Bacillus anthracis, cereus)
You are seeing a patient that appears to have a pharyngitis. Closer examination shows a gray membranous throat (adherant gray pseudomembrane). What is your initial dx and trx? respiratory Corneybacterium diphtheriae infection. You treat the patient with penicillin, but also treat with Diphtheria antitoxin (to neutralize the exotoxin)
What are the affects of Corneybacterium diphtheriae infections? adherant gray pseudomembrane, pharyngitis. The diphtheria exotoxin primarily affects the heart, kidneys, nerves by inhibiting protein synthesis. The oral colonization can cause airway obstruction. Treatment is emergent.
Gram+, cocci, catalase + staphylococcus aureus
gram+, cocci, coagulase -? Streptococcus, Enterococcus
what are the main B-lactamase stable B-lactams cephalosporins, methicillin, nafcillin
Most Gram+ (virulent) orgs produce B-lactamase. What would be the best trx for these orgs, like Staph aureus? B-lactamase stable B-lactams (like...nafcillin, cephalosporin, methicillin)
You have a Staph aureus org in your lab that you are testing. Initially you use penicillin. It eventually becomes resistant. You then use Methicillin (or other B-lactamase stable B-lactams) and it again becomes resistant, so you use Vancomycin. Next? Vancomycin resistant SA may be treated with Synercid (quinupristin/dalfopristin) or Linezolid
What might you use Synercid or Linezolid for? vancomycin-resistant staph aureus
What is the most common Coag neg Staphylococci? Staph epidermidis
What are 2 broad but characteristic facts about coag neg staph? opportunistic (esp prosthetics)/glycocalyx
What is the primary bacteria isolated from blood cultures? Staph epidermidis
What is the first and second most common bacterial causes of UTI's in women? (1st) Ecoli (2nd) coag neg Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Which group of bacteria are commonly associated with prosthetic plastics? coag neg Staph
You have identified a bacterial culture from your patient morphologically as a G+coccus. You then test with catalase and get no reaction. What have you narrowed your search to? and what should be done next? strep, enterococci; NEXT=hemolytic plates
gram+ catalase- and a clear zone on a hemolysis plate B-hemolytic Group A Strep (GAS)
Group A strep is aka? Strep pyogenes
Group B strep is aka? Strep agalactiae
gram+ cocci, catalase -, alpha hemolytic, Optochin (Pdisk) succeptible? Strep pneumoniae
gram+ catalase- alpha hemolytic, optochin (Pdisk) resistant? viridans strep, enterococcus
gram+ catalase- gamma hemolytic? viridans strep, enterococcus
explain the morphological and chemical profile for staph aureus? gram+ catalase+ coag+
explain the morphological and chemical profile for coag negative staph? gram+ catalase+ coag-
explain the morphological and chemical profile for streptococci? gram+ catalse-
explain the morphological and chemical profile for enterococci? gram+ calase- alpha hemolytic-optochin R or Gamma hemolytic
a non-hemolytic organism will produce what type of hemolysis? gamma
explain the morphological and chemical profile for Streptococcus pnemoniae? gram+ catalase- alpha hemolytic, optochin (P disk) succeptible
explain the morphological and chemical profile for viridans strep? gram+ catalase- alpha hemolytic, optochin resistant (or gamma hemolysis)
what is the gram stain of enterococci? gram positive
Created by: crfnr5