Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Chapter 5

Phenotype and Genotype

What is a genotype? A set of genetic instructions, or the genetic composition of an individual organism.
What is a phenotype? The observable appearance of an individual organism.
How many matched pairs of chromosomes does a genotype consist of? 23 pairs. Each pair is made of two chromosomes, each of which were donated by one of the parents.
What are chromosomes made up of? Deoxyribonucleic acidd (DNA).
What are genes? Small segments of DNA. Each occupies a fixed location on a chromosome.
What are genes made up of? They are made up of a combination off four biochemicals known as bases or nucleotides.
What are the four nucleotides? Adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T)
What is gene expression? The translation of the genotype into the phenotype of an organism.
What are the three stages of gene expression? Transcription, translation and completion of the protein.
What happens during the transcription phase of gene expression? DNA partially unwinds and a strange of complementary RNA is made (think of it like an inverse copy).
What happens during the translation phase of gene expression? RNA instructs ribosomes to produce amino acids (in conjunction with the codons)
What is a codon? What does it do? A set of three bases. Each codon provides instructions for the production of one of 20 amino acids, which are joined by ribosomes to form a chain.
What happens during the completion of a protein? The chain formed by the codons and ribosomes in the translation phase folds into a shape based on its amino acid sequence and becomes a protein.
What are alleles? They are alternative versions of a particular gene.
How is blood type formed? The three different alleles of blood type (A, B and O) pair up with one allele from each parent, giving rise to four blood types: type A (AA or AO), type B (BB or BO), type AB (AB), or type O (OO).
What is a homozygous gene? Having two identical alleles at a given site.
What is a heterozygous gene? Having two different alleles at a given site.
What is a recessive allele? An allele that will produce its phenotype only when it occurs in a homozygous pair.
What blood type allele is recessive? Type O.
What is a dominant allele? An allele that will produce a phenotypical trait regardless of whether its pair is homozygous or heterozygous.
Give one example of a gene that does not show dominance. The serotonin transporter gene (SERT)
What are imprinted genes? A gene where only one allele of a pair is expressed. It depends on which parent supplied the allele.
Popular Neuroscience sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards