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Royal Absolutism

Scientific Revolution Influenced by Renaissance, begins era of modern science in the 1600s
Scientific method Organized way of reasoning and thinking. Before this, no repetition of studies was done, so rarely proof was accurate
Geocentric Belief that earth is in center of universe
Heliocentric Belief that sun is in center of universe
Kepler Found that planets move in ellipses, not actual circles
Galileo Uses better developed telescope to see imperfections in own moon and other planets' moons. Published many books
Newton Developed law of gravity and motion
Enlightenment Also called the age of reason, starts in 1600 England but is strongest in 1700 France. Popular mostly in middle to higher class
Optimism, rationality, progress, perfectibility. Beliefs of Enlightenment, that humans were naturally good but could improve.
Montesquieu Believed in a government separated into 3 branches
Voltaire Believed in freedom of speech and religion
Adam Smith Wrote Wealth of Nations explaining capitalism / free enterprise. Believed in a laissez faire government
Rousseau Believed highly in education as the cure to evil
Diderot Helped write the volumes of the first encyclopedia
Balanced government, limited monarch power, freedom of religion, equality before law, education, no censorship. General beliefs of Enlightenment philosophes
Liberalism Also called the child of the Enlightenment, believed in liberty and equality in the eyes of God and the law. Against absolutism, liked representative governments
The level playing field theory Liberalist idea that everyone should have an equal opportunity to thrive and grow
Phillip II Spanish monarch - son of Charles V. A devout Catholic. Plans but fails in a coup to take over Elizabeth I's England (!1588!)
James I English monarch after being Scottish monarch who replaces Elizabeth I 1603. Starts the new Stuart dynasty. (Strong royal power). Had issues w/ mostly Puritan government
Louis XIV French monarch known as "Sun King." The epitome of royal power. Leaves French in financial crisis after death
Frederick II Prussian monarch - part of "1st Reich." Military strength used to expand land
Maria Theresa Austrian monarch - part of Habsburg dynasty - very dedicated. Had 16 kids (the more available, the more able to marry to other countries' royal powers).
Ivan IV Russian monarch - Nicknamed the Terrible because brutal. Also killed own son
Peter I Russian monarch - part of last Russian dynasty before communism, Romanov. Helped Russia modernize (westernize) and moved Moscow capital as the "Window to West"
Catherine II Polish monarch - known as promiscuous. Adapted to Russian culture and expanded the Polish territory
Thomas Hobbes Believed in an archaic state of nature before government. Believed in a social contract between the people so king could have all power. Believed in an absolute monarchy because didn't believe people were naturally good
John Locke Believed in archaic state of nature before government. Believed in social contract between people and leader. Believed in natural human rights as life, liberty, property
Charles I James I son, who did not call Parliament into session for 11 years. When he needed money to end a Scottish revolt, calls Parliament, where they enact laws limiting royal power and control military.
English Civil War Argument risen from Charles I's overuse of his royal power, and Parliament's curbing of it
Cavaliers Royal side of the English Civil War
Roundheads Parliament's side of the English Civil War, who wins, and is led by Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell aka Lord Protector Leader of the Roundheads during the English Civil War, who becomes Charles I's replacement after he is beheaded. Unpopular because of his Puritan ruling and high tax
Charles II Takes power as part of the Restoration of 1660, which was a peaceful return for Parliament. He had no heir
James II Takes power for his brother, Charles II. The problem is, he is Catholic, and has a Catholic son with his second wife. Fortunately, he is overthrown peacefully, and replaced by first daughter, Mary.
Mary II James II daughter, who becomes queen, and signs English Civil Rights that states that monarchy is limited - Glorious Revolution 1688
Copernicus Was a religion person, but didn't believe in geocentrism
Created by: uriel_magana