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infection control

UA/Micro Chapter 8

BUN blood, urea, nitrogen
CDC Centers for Disease Control
OSHA Occupational Safety & Health Administration
epidemology study of infectious disease
normal flora helpful and necessary for life processes
pathogens or infectious agents microorganisms that cause disease
stages of infection cycle infectious agent, reservoir/source, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host
infectious agents bacteria, viruses, parasites (Rickettsia), protozoa, fungus (mold & yeast)
examples of reservoir almost anything - vectors, water, food, fomites, humans
means of transmission direct & indirect contact, vertical transmission, airborne, droplet, iatrogenic, inhalation
iatrogenic transmission due to medical treatments, procedures, surgeries, injections
portal of entry/portal of exit inhaled, ingested, absorbed - respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, reproductive tracts
anaerobes microorganisms that grow without O2
environmental requirements for microorganisms nutrients, O2 or no O2, temperature, PH, darkness, moisture,
stages of infection invasion/multiplication, incubation, prodromal, acute, declining, convalescent
invasion stage pathogenic microorganism enters body and begins to multiply, no signs or symptoms
incubation first sign or symptoms
prodromal definitive signs or symptoms i.e. fever, rash
acute infection at its peak
declining symptoms subside
convalescent return to original state of health
inflammatory response body's natural reaction to infection - to heal and replace injured tissue
cell-mediated immunity T-cells activated - directly attack cancer cells, viruses, etc. (phagocytes) (thymus)
humoral immunity B-cell lymphocytes produce antibodies that lock into antigen and neutralize (bone marrow)
immunity body's ability to defend itself against pathogens and toxins
natural immunity occurs as a result of being exposed to a pathogen
natural active immunity direct exposure to antigen - body builds it's own protection
natural passive immunity antibodies passed from mother to fetus
artificial immunity occurs as a result of being given either antigen or antibodies
artificial passive immunity pt is injected with antibodies (immunoglobulins)
artificial active immunity pt given small amounts of antigen (immunization) to stimulate antibody reaction
live attenuated vaccine weakened form of pathogen - produce antibodies against pathogen (MMR)
asepsis free of germs
medical asepsis destruction of microorganisms after leaving the body
surgical asepsis destruction of microorganisms before they enter the body (sterilization for surgery)
hypochlorite solution bleach (10%)
hepatitis inflammation of the liver
Exposure Control Plan developed by employer to protect employees that are at risk for exposure for BBP or OPIM
OPIM other potentially infected materials
BBP blood borne pathogens
regulated waste infectious waste - medical waste contaminated with blood, body fluids, OPIM
work practice controls methods used in workplace to protect employees from exposure
resident flora normal flora present on skin
transient flora bacteria on hands picked up via contaminated objects
nosocomial disease originating in hospital - flora not found on hands
sanitization cleaning process to remove tissue, blood or body fluids
disinfection destroying microorganisms on fomites using chemicals (except for spores)
sterilization complete destruction of all microorganisms - usually by autoclave
antigen invading organism (bacteria or virus) that stimulates antibody production
antibodies produced by B-cells (B-lymphocytes) attach to specific antigen to neutralize it
seroconversion point at which antibodies are detectable in serum
SDS (MSDS) safety data sheet (material SDS)
systemic signs of inflammation fever, leukocytes, swollen lymph nodes, rashes, increased pulse
local signs of inflammation redness, heat, pain, swelling
Created by: gcjlentz