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Skeletal System Voc

Skeletal System Chapter 6

TermDefinition
allogenic originating from a different origin, as in a transplant of tissue from a matching donor but not the individual (recipient)
ankylosing spondylitis type of arthritis that affects the vertebral column and causes deformities of the spine
arthrodesis surgical fusion of a joint
articular cartilage thin layer of cartilage that covers the ends of the long bones and the surfaces of the joint
bone depressions concave, indented areas or openings in bones
bone markings specific features of individual bones
bone processes projections or outgrowths of bones
cancellous bone spongy bone, not as dense as a compact bone
cervical vertebrae vertebrae or bones of the neck, C1 through C7
compact bone hard outer shell of the bone
condyle knuck-like projection at the end of a bone
costochondritis inflammation of the rib cartilage of the anterior chest wall
crest distinct border or ridge, as in iliac crest
diaphysis main shaft-like portion of a bone
epiphyseal line a layer of cartilage that separates the diaphysis form the epiphysis of a bone; also known as the epiphyseal plate
epiphysis the end of a bone
false ribs rib pairs 8 through 10, connect to the vertebrae in the back but not to the sternum in the front, join the 7th rib in the front
fissure a groove or depression in a bone; a sulcus
flat bones bones that are broad and thin with flat or curved surfaces, such as the sternum
floating ribs rib pairs 11 and 12, which connect to the vertebrae in the back but are free of any attachment in the front
fontanelle or fontanel space between the bones of an infant's cranium; "soft spot"
foreman hole in a bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass
fossa hollow or concave depression in a bone
haversian canals system of small canals within compact bone that contain blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves
hematopoiesis the normal formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow
hemopoietic, hematopoietic formation of blood cells
intercostal spaces spaces between the ribs
intervertebral disk a flat, circular, plate-like structure of cartilage that serves as a cushion between vertebrae
long bones bones that longer than they are wide and with distinctive shaped ends, such as the femur
lumbar vertebrae vertebrae of the lower back, L1 through L5
medullary cavity the center portion of the shaft of a long bone containing the red and yellow marrow
ossification the conversion of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue to bone; the formation of bone
osteoblasts immature bone cells that actively produce bony tissue
osteoclasts large cells that absorb or digest old bone tissue
osteocytes mature bone cells
osteonecrosis the death of bone tissue; possibly form trauma or some disease process
periosteum the thick, white, fibrous membrane that covers the surface of a long bone
red bone marrow the soft, semifluid substance located in the small spaces of cancellous bone that is the source of blood cell production
resorption the process of removing or digesting old bone tissue
sesamoid bones irregular bones imbedded in tendons near a joint, as in the kneecap
short bones bones that are about as long as they are wide and somewhat box-shaped
sinus an opening or hollow space in a bone; a cavity within a bone
spine a sharp projection from the surface of a bone; similar to a crest
stenosis an abnormal condition characterized by a narrowing or restriction of an opening or passageway in a body structure
subluxation incomplete dislocation
sulcus a groove or depression in a bone; a fissure
sutures immovable joints
synovectomy surgical removal of the synovial membrane from a joint
thoracic vertebrae the 12 vertebrae of the chest, T1 through T12
trabeculae needle-like bony spicules within cancellous bone that contribute to the spongy appearance
trochanter large bony process located below the neck of the femur
true ribs the first 7 pair of ribs, which connect to the vertebrae in the back and to the sternum in the front
tubercle a small rounded process of a bone
tuberosity an elevated, broad, rounded process of a bone
vertebral foramen a large opening in the center of each vertebra that serves as a passageway for the spinal cord
yellow marrow located in the diaphysis of long bones, consists of fatty tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells
True Ribs Pairs 1-7; connected directly to the sternum
False Ribs Pairs 8-12; connected to the sternum through cartilage or not at all
Floating Ribs Pairs 11 and12; connected only to the thoracic vertebrae
Osteoporosis occurs most frequently in postmenopausal women; major factor is hormonal; loss of standing height of greater than 2 inches; cervical kyphosis
Kyphosis hump back or hunchback (outward)
Lordosis swayback (inward)
Scoliosis sideward (lateral)
Osteomalacia bone become soft; deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood; occur in children, called rickets;
Osteomyelitis local or generalized bone and bone marrow infection from bacteria; frequently caused by staphylococcal infection, spread from adjacent infection to bone; through blood; or directly through injury or surgery
Ewing's Sarcoma malignant tumor of the bone, common to young adults, particularly adolescent boys; usually develops in the long bone or the pelvis; 65% cure rate; chemotherapy, radiation, surgery to remove the tumor or amputation
Paget's Disease nonmetabolic disease of the bone, excessive destruction and unorganized bone formation; bone is weak and prone to fracture, osteitis defomans; severe case may require surgery to repair damage to bones and surrounding tissues
Spinal Stenosis most common in older adults, pain is normally the first symptom; severe cases bladder and bowel dysfunction; tingling, numbness or muscle weakness
Talipes Equinovarus clubfoot; surgery
Compound Fracture Closed and open
Greenstick Fracture Complete and Incomplete
Compression Fracture caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other
Impacted Fracture direct force causes the bone to break, forcing the broken end of the smaller bone into the broken end of the large bone
Comminuted Fracture is a break or splinter of the bone into more than two fragments
Pathological Fracture bone weakened by a preexisting disease, breaks in response to a force that would not cause of normal bone to break
Hairline Fracture stress fracture; minor fracture
Reduction aligning the bone fragments through manual manipulation or traction; close or open
Fixation maintain the bone alignment; close: cast, splint; open: screws, pins, nails and wires
Bone Marrow Aspiration removing small sample of bone marrow with a needle; preferred sites: sternum, iliac crest and broad end of the tibia
Elongated middle portion or shaft of a long bone, also referred to as the body: Diaphysis
The tibia is a... long bone
A degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS that attacks the myelin sheath in the spinal cord and brain Multiple Sclerosis
Created by: wallace263