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Africa Definitions

Countries and terms of Africa

TermDefinition
Escarpment It is a steep slope or long cliff that occurs from faulting.
Cataract A large waterfall.
Rift valley A large depression in the Earth’s surface formed by shifting tectonic plates.
Fault Fractures in the Earth’s crust.
Delta A triangular section of land formed by sand and silt carried downriver.
Estuary A passage where freshwater meets seawater.
Sanitation A disposal of waste products.
Urbanization The movement of people from rural areas to cities.
Service Center Convenient business locations for rural dwellers, who travel there by foot, bus, or boat.
Subsistence Farming It is small-scale agriculture that provides primarily for the needs of just a family or village.
Shifting Farming A land-use system, esp in tropical Africa, in which a tract of land is cultivated until its fertility diminishes.
Sedentary Farming It is agriculture conducted at permanent settlements.
Commercial Farming It is farms produce crops on a large scale.
Cash Crop They are grown to be sold for profit instead of used by the farmer.
Conservation Farming A land-management technique that helps protect farmland.
Infrastructure It is resources such as trained workers, facilities, and equipment to build a refinery.
E-commerce It is selling and buying on the Internet.
Ruwenzori Mountains Divide Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Drakensberg Range These mountains rise to more than 11,000 feet (3,353 m) and form part of the escarpment along the southern edge of the continent.
Great Rift Valley Stretches from Syria in Southwest Asia to Mozambique in the southeastern part of Africa.
Lake Victoria It is the largest lake in Africa, is located between the eastern and western branches of the Great Rift. It is the world’s second-largest freshwater lake, after Lake Superior in North America.
Niger River The Niger is the main artery in western Africa, extending about 2,600 miles (4,184 km) in length. Originating in the highlands of Guinea, the river forms a great arc. It flows northeast and then curves southeast to the Nigerian coast.
Zambezi River It meets the ocean in a delta. The Zambezi flows 2,200 miles (3,540 km) from its source near the Zambia-Angola border in the west to the Indian Ocean in the east, where it fans out in a delta that is 37 miles (60 km) wide.
Congo River It reaches the sea through a deep estuary. The Congo’s estuary is 6 miles wide, and ships can navigate the deep water. The remaining 2,900 miles of the Congo form a large network of navigable waterways for smaller boats.
Nigeria The most populous African country south of the Sahara. ethnic and religious divisions continue to plague Nigeria today as it moves from harsh military rule to democracy.
Rwanda One of the region’s most densely populated countries, has 719 people per square mile.
Namibia It has only 6 people per square mile. It offers clues to early way of life in Africa.
Zimbabwe A child born here is more likely to die of AIDS than of any other cause. The average life expectancy has fallen from 65 years to 39 years because of AIDS.
Lagos A seaport in Nigeria which has a population of more than 10 million.
Accra The capital of Ghana, on the Atlantic coast of West Africa.
Kinshasa Kinshasa is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is on the Congo River. Once a site of fishing villages, Kinshasa is now an urban area with a 2014 population of over 11 million.
Nairobi Nairobi is Kenya’s capital city. In addition to its urban core, the city has Nairobi National Park, a large game reserve known for breeding endangered black rhinos and home to giraffes, zebras and lions.
Johannesburg An inland city which owes its origins and growth to the mining of gold.
Zambia Farmers here have started to practice conservation farming. It is also a landlocked country of rugged terrain and diverse wildlife, with many parks and safari areas.
South Africa The world’s largest producer of gold. The country also is a world leader in the production of gems and industrial diamonds.
Guinea Has about one-third of the world’s known reserves of bauxite, the main ore used in making aluminum, but it cannot manufacture aluminum because it lacks the cheap energy, capital, and infrastructure.
Kampala Kampala is Uganda's national and commercial capital bordering Lake Victoria.
Created by: jayce.courville