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Mr. K Middle East

Middle East Vocabulary

Torah the first five books of the Hebrew Bible- the most sacred writings in the Jewish tradition
Abraham the "father" of the Hebrew people chosen by God
Moses the man who led the Hebrews out of slavery
Israel a kingdom of the united Hebrews in Palestine, lasting from about 1020 to 922 B.C.; later, the northernmost of the two Hebrew kingdoms; now, the Jewish nation that was established in Palestine in 1948.
Palestine a region at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea that was inhabited by the Phoenicians
assyria a Southwest Asian kingdom that controlled a large empire from about 850 to 612 B.C.
Nebuchadnezzar a Chaldean king who restored Babylon
Cyrus Persia's king in 550 B.C.
Darius a noble of the ruling dynasty who seized the Persian throne in 522-521 B.C.
Royal Road a road in the Persian Empire, stretching over 1,600 miles from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia
Zoroaster a Persian prophetand religious reformer who lived around 600 B.C.
Allah God (an Arabic word, used mainly in Islam)
Islam a monotheistic religion that developed in Arabia in the seventh century A.D.
Muslim a follower of Islam
Hijrah Muhammad's migration form Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) in A.D. 622
Qur'an the holy book of Islam
Five Pillars the duties to demonstrate a Muslim's submission to the will of God: faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage
Sunna an Islamic model for living, based on the life and teachings of Muhammad
Shariah a body of law governing the lives of Muslims
Caliph a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
House of Wisdom a center of learning established in Baghdad in the 800s
calligraphy the art of beautiful handwriting
mamelukes Turkish slaves who served as soldiers and bodyguards in the Abbasid Empire
Seljuks a Turkish group who migrated into the Abbasid Empire in the 10th century and established their own empire in the 11th century
vizier a prime minister in a Muslim kingdom of empire
Malik Shah the most famous of Seljuk sultans
Created by: johndkram