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*Luksa Review Sheet1

Globalization force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope.
Physical Geography study of physical phenomena on Earth
Human Geography study of human phenomena on Earth (language, religion, identity)
Spatial Arrangement of places and phenomena, how they are laid out, organized, and arranged on Earth, and how they appear on the landscape.
spatial distribution how something is laid out across space.
pattern design of spatial distribution (how something is laid out across space.)
spatial perspective looking at how things are laid out. Observing variations in geographic phenomena across space.
5 Themes of Geography location, human-environment, region, place, movement
location the geographic position of people and things on the earth's surface and how they affect what happens and why.
human-environment relationship among phenomena in individual places (including the relationship between humans and the physical world).
region features that tend to be concentrated in particular areas (ex. U.S.: New England, Mid-West, East Coast, South, North...)
place uniqueness of a location.
movement mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the surface of the planet.
sense of place infusing a place with meaing and emotion, but remembering important events that occurred in a place, or by labeling a place with a certain character. (Ex. feeling of "home".)
perceptions of places developed ideas about places people have never been through books, movies, stories, and pictures. (NYC, Los Angeles, Paris, Alabama...)
spatial interaction how things are laid how and how the people in those different places exchange ideas, goods, diseases,... or do not exchange ideas, goods, diseases...
distances the measurement of physical spaces between to points or places.
accessibility the ability for something to be gotten/achieved. the degress to which it is easily possible to get to a certain location from other locations. This varies and can be measured.
connectivity how things come together or are linked between one location and another in a transport network.
landscape a core element of geography that refers to the material character of a place, complexity of natural features, human structures, and other tangible objects that give a place a particular form.
cultural landscape the visible imprint of human activity on the landscape. (concept-- Carl Sauer, 1927, UC Berkley.)
sequent occupance Refers to the idea that as occupiers arrive they bring their own technoloy and cultural traditions & transform the landscape, but they can also be influenced by what they find when they arrive & leave some of it there. (concept- Derwent Whittlesey, 1929)
Cartography the study of maps/ map making.
reference maps show locations of palces and geographic features.
thematic maps tell storeis, usually showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon.
absolute location latitude/longitude, coordinates, an exact location.
global positioning system (GPS) allows us to locate things on the surgace of the earth with extraordinary accuracy; researchers can collect data quickly and easily in the field.
mental maps the maps we carry in our minds of places we have been and places we have merely heard of. (ex. a mental map of your house, park, school, church, publix, etc.)
remote sensing geographers moniter the Earth's surface form a distance to understand the scope and rate of environemtnal change over short and long periods of time by satellites and aircraft (airplanes, balloons.)
Geographic information systems (GIS) geographers use this advancement in computer technology and data storage to compare a variety of spatial data by combining layers of spatial data in a computerized environment, creating maps in which patterns and processes are superimposed.
formal region a physical criteria of an area and can also be defined by cultural traits (the people share one or more cultural traits -- food, belief systems, dress, dances, hair styles, languages etc.)
functional region the product of interactions of movement of various kinds. (Ex. a city, has a surrounding region within which workers commute, either ot the downtown area to to subsidiary centers such as office parks and shopping malls -- that entire urban area.)
perceptual regions intellectual constructs designed to help us understand the nature and distribution of phenomena in human geography. (Zelinsky's article "North America's Vernacular Regions")
culture Refers to music, literature, an the arts of a society, and all other features of its way of life: dress, routine living habits, food, architecture, education, government, law, even agricultural practices. (closely associated with Anthropology.)
cultural trait a single attribute or characteristic of a culture. (ex. wearing a turban)
culture complex more than one culture may exhibit a culture trait, but each will consiste of a discrete combination of traits... (ex. herding cattle -- but it's used in different ways by different cultures. Maasai, E. Africa)
cultural hearth an area where cultural traits develop (originate) and from which the cultural traits diffuse.
culture diffusion Process where something spreads -- an idea or innovation from its hearth (source) to other places. (Carl Sauer - Agricultural Origins and Dispersals; Haegerstrand, 1970 brought in time and distance to the equation.)
expansion diffusion an idea that develops in a hearth and ramins strong there while also spreading outward. Moves without people physically moving to become "knowers" of the trait or innovation.(Ex. Islam -- Arabian Peninsula to Egypt and N. Africa, SW Asia, and W. Africa)
relocation diffusion The opposite of expansion diffusion where the actual movemnt of individuals who have already adopted the idea or innovation carry it to a new, sometimes distant locale, where they proceed to disseminate it. Usually occurs through migration.
contagious diffusion A type of expansion diffusion. A form of expansion diffusion in which nearly all adjacent individuals are affected. (a disease, a religion like Islam.)
hierarchical diffusion Ex. a new fashion or genre of music may not spread throughout a contiguous populations -- often it's hierarchical. This diffusion is a pattern where the main channel of diffusion is some segment, level, or step of those who might adopt what is diffusing.
stimulous diffusion (expan. diffuse) Some ideas to adopt are 2 vague, unattainable, or different yet these ideas have an impact & may indirectly promote local experimentation & eventual changes in ways of doing things. (ex. mass-production of food led to vegburgers in India)
environmental determinism Environmental determinism is belief that behavior (individual & collective) is affected, controlled, or determined by physical environment people live in. (Aristotle Anc.Greece).
possibilism Possibilism is that belief of the natural environment only limits choices available to a culture.
cultural ecology an area of inquiry concerned with culture as a system of adaptation to environment.
political ecology an area of inquiry fundamentally concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political-economic arrangements and understandings.
density the frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
distribution the arrangement of something across earth's surface
equator the imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles
latitude the numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator (0 degrees)
longitude the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distances east and west of the prime meridian (0 degrees)
Mercator projection a type of map in which the true compass directions are kept intact (lines of latitude and longitude intersect at right angles) but areas are distorted
Prime Meridian the meridian, designated as 0 degrees longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
projection the system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map
Robinson projection representation that reflects the spherical appearance of Earth, but like the Mercator projection, distortions occur
scale generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface
site the physical character of a place
situation the location of a place relative to other places
toponym the name given to a portion of Earth's surface
vernacular region (perceptual region) an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
Created by: Mluksa
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