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MWH Unit 5 Vocab

Summerville High School MWH HONORS Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

TermDefinition
Scientific Revolution Period in the mid-1500s, when scientists began to question accepted beliefs about the world and make new theories based on experimentation.
Geocentric Theory Theory that the Earth was the center of the universe.
Heliocentric Theory Theory that the sun is the center of the universe.
Astronomy the study of the moon, stars and other heavenly bodies.
Scientific Method specific process of gathering information and experimenting
Nicolas Copernicus developed heliocentric theory
Johannes Kepler laws of planetary motion - proved heliocentric theory using math
Galileo built a telescope and supported heliocentric theory, was tried in the inquisition and held under house arrest
Isaac Newton used math to prove heliocentric theory and explain planetary movement – described gravity
Enlightenment A revolution in intellectual activity changed Europeans’ view of government and society.
Social contract the idea that people give up their rights to a government
Constitution set of written laws that govern a nation
Social Equality concept that people have equal access to resources and treatment under the law
Nationalism people of one culture with a shared history having a country of their own; or pride in a country made up of one group of people
Monarchy ruled by a king or queen; power by divine right and heredity
Theocracy ruled by a religious group
Dictatorship ruled by one person, through force
Constitutional ruled by a set of laws, rulers must follow the laws too
Philosophe political philosopher or thinker
Thomas Hobbes believed the best government was an absolute monarchy; all people are evil.
John Locke believed governments exist to protect people’s natural rights; overthrow those that fail
Voltaire freedom of speech and religion
Montesquieu separation of powers, checks and balances
Thomas Jefferson used enlightenment ideas when writing the Declaration of Independence
Enlightened Despots rulers who made small reforms but did not give up any powers of the throne
Frederick the Great (Prussia)freedom of religion, reformed schools and justice system
Catherine the Great (Russia)supported freeing serfs until a peasant rebellion
Joseph II (Austria) tried to free the serfs
Created by: amygilstrap7