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plate tectonics

chap 9 review

TermDefinition
plate tectonics sold plates of lithosphere "float" around earth on soft plastic asthenopshere, continental drift
caldera ex) crater lake forms when volcano erupts violently and collapses into its empty magma chamber
Alfred Wegener proposed theory of plate tectonics in late 60s
asthenosphere below lithosphere, floats because differential heating of mantle
lithosphere rigid outermost shell, brittle solid upper portion of the crust
4 types of plate boundaries spreading, converging, , transform
spreading/divergent plate boundary when 2 lithosphere plates pull apart when a crack occurs it fills with magma lava and solidifies
Spreading/divergent onland creates rift valleys with normal faulting
spreading/divergent at sea makes sea floor spreading and used to date sea floor
midoceanic ridge the central belt of submarine mountains where two plates seperate,
How is a midoceanic ridge created? sea floor spreading causes lava to form at its centers which creates oceanic crust OR continental plates spread apart and a new ocean basin is created between them
convergent plate boundary boundary where any two lithospheric plates come together
How is a convergent boundary created? a plate slides under another (subduction) OR plates collide creating a mountain range
transforms boundary a boundary where two lithospheric plates slide past each other
How are transform boundaries made? plates grind past each otheralong vertical fractures
continental suture continents united after collision
pangea super continent existed 300 million years ago
gandwana southern super continent
laurasia northern super continent
the alps collision of african and eurasian plates
himilaya collision of austral- indian and eurasian plates *fastest moving plate on planet
potassium argon dating dated sea floor is evidence of plate tectonics
how does potassium argon dating work? potassium 40 decays over time into argon 40- the amount of decay lets us know the date
half life used to date older things, when half of a parent isotope decays into the daughter isotope
oceanic trench when there is a rising and sinking plate and the descending plate pulls material into the asthenosphere- deep part of boundary between continental and oceanic crust
subduction denser oceanic crust dives under less dense continental crust
what is the evidence of plate tectonics Potassium argon dating and the age of the sea floor, pangea, continental drift, volcanoes tsunamis and earthquakes, fossils, rock types
sea-floor spreading new oceanic crust is formed from volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge *helps explain continental drift
epicenter the location of the earths surface directly above where a fault slipped to produce an earth quake
magnitude the amount of energy released by an earthquake
earthquake trembling and shaking of the ground, produced by movements along faults
volcano built by hardened lava, tephra, and volcanic ash usually domed shaped
hotspot center of volcanic activity thought to be located over a rising mantle plume
stratovolcano (layered+strato) constructed by layers of lava and volcanic ash
shield volcano low large dome like accumulation of basalt lava flows emerging from long radial fissures on flanks
caldera when a stratovolcano explodes destroying center portion of volcano it creates central depression
cinder cone small volcano formed when frothy magma is ejected under high pressure from narrow vent producing tephra
flood basalts basalt layers accumulated by emerging from numerous vents and fissures
geomorphology study of landforms and the process that creates them
felsic magma composed of because higher viscosity builds pressure
felsic volcano build pressure and explode
mafic volcano ooz lava
lahars volcanic mud flow
pyroclastic flow superheated cloud of gas and ash incinerates everything in path- well over 1000F at its center, travels 150mph
Mt. St. Helens major eruption killing 57 people had lateral blast going sideays
tephra produced by volcanic eruption, clastic volcanic material
initial landforms endogenic constructed by forces within the earth
sequential landforms exogenic constructed with forces outside of the earth by wind glaciers gravity etc
erosional land there because something else eroded
depositional land deposited there
characteristics of a volcano endogenic, initial landform BUT the greenery etc on top of volcano is exogenic, sequential
guyot sea mount
hawaii example of hotspot plumes forming chains of volcanic island and sea mounts
mafic magma quiet low viscosity and less gases
volcanoes on oceanic plates are less explosive
Yellowstone supervolcano that erupts every 600,000 years
hotspots- on land more felsic and violent
Created by: 1738400229818217