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earth's topography

chap 8 review

the core solid inner and liquid oute, mostly made of iron some nickel 5400-9000 F 2200 mile radius
mantle 1800 miles thick mafic minerals, 3300-5100 F, mostly plastic, upper portion brittle
crust thinnest layer of earth's crust 5-25 miles thick, made of igneous metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. denser rocks further down in crust.
continental crust maefic on bottom and felsic on top less dense and and thicker than oceanic
oceanic crust maefic composition, thinner and denser
moho boundary between the crust and mantle
lithosphere the crust and upper brittle portion of the mantle
asthenosphere softer plastic portion of the mantle
alpine chains active mountain-making belts are narrow zones that are found along the margins of lithospheric plates *formed by plate collisions*
alpine chains- mountain arcs circum pacific belt eurasian indonesian belt
continental shields basis of continent building due to resistance to weathering
exposed continental shields older igneous and metamorphic, inactive
covered continental shields (platform) younger sedimentary rocks on top of exposed shields
ancient mountain roots inactive mountain regions, evidence of former plate tectonic activity
oceanic trench depression in sea floor deepest part of sea floor feature of convergent plate boundaries
midoceanic ridge submarine hills of balsatic rock formed by sea floor spreading
axial rift narrow trench like features in center of mid oceanic ridge
abyssal plain deep sea floor mostly flat with some mountain ranges caused by sea floor spreading
continental shelf sediments derived from continent below sea level
folds layers of rock folded by tectonic processes and compression
3 types of folds (gradational) normal to overturned to recumbent
anticline type of fold with oldest beds at its core (upside down U) ridges hills
syncline depressions (u shape) youngeest layers closest to center
fault movement on fracture plane
the 3 types of faults normal, transform, reverse
horst up throw of footwall with fault (the corner)
graben low point between 2 faults (creates valley)
subduction when two plates collide and one moves under the other plate
oregeny an area of the earths crust is foldedand deformed fromlateral compression
ratio of continent to water 71% ocean and 29% continent
Created by: 1738400229818217