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rocks

physical geography chap 8

TermDefinition
How is igneous rock formed? cooling of magma
How is sedimentary rock formed? accumulation of sediment compacting
How is metamorphic rock formed? rock altered by physical or chemical means. by heat, pressure, or other processes. takes place below earth's surface
mineral natural occuring inorganic crystal/solid definite chemical composition
rock combination of minerals
Types of igneous rocks intrusive and extrusive
intrusive igneous characteristics cools/crystalizes slowly beneath surface course grained (can identify individual minerals) more likely to have crystals
extrusive igneous characteristics volcanic, cools/crystallizes quickly fine grained (can't identify ind minerals)
Intrusive igneous rock types -granite -diorite -gabbro
extrusive igneous rock types -rhyolite -andesite -basalt
dike vertical crack filled with intrusive igneous rock
sill horizontal crack filled with intrusive igneous rock
differential erosion different rocks erode at different rates
glaciation causes erosion, the result of being covered by ice sheets
denudation erosion by water ice wind
pluton a body of intrusive igneous rock the largest pluton is called a batholith
the three types of sedimentary rocks clastic, chemical, organic
clastic sedimentary- cliff former vs slope former cliff- formed by more resistance slope- formed by less
clastic sedimentary- cross bedding change in direction of rock bedding
clastic sedimentary- bedding planes planes of weakness where rock breaks
chemical sedimentary- sediments are chemical precipitation of dissolved materials
organic sedimentary- organic material like plant and animal remains compacted together
The rock cycle any rock given enough time turns into other rocks because earth materials cycle over time
caldera when stratovolcano erupts so violently it collapses int magma chamber
ring of fire surrounds pacific plate
down fold trough like syncline
upfuld arch like anticline
Gondwana super continent in southern hemisphere
laurasia super continent in northern hemisphere
graben block dropped down between 2 normal faults
horst upthrown block
overthrust fault caused by compression, hanging wall pushed up by shallow angle
lahar volcaninc mudflow
2 most common elements in earths crust silicon and oxygen
plutonic rock is intrusive, cools slowly, can identify individual minerals
volcanic igneous rock is, fine grained, cools quickly, extrusive igneous
basalt denser then granite
san juan mtns are made of lava flow and ash
denudation lowering of landscape
yellowstone erupts every 600,000 years
felsic volcano erupts
mafic ooze lava
diorite composed of mafic and felsic intrusive igneous rock
crossbedding in sandstone evidence of warm shallow seas
clastic sedimentary rock composed from broken up pieces of other rocls
andesite igneous contains quartz feldspar intermediate in mineral comp
mantle plastic lower and brittle upper
ancient mountain roots inactive continental relief feature in Applachian mtns and urals
midoceanic ridge submarine hills
axial rift narrow trench like features
subduction zone location for earthquake to trigger tsunami
subduction when oceanic and cont plates collide
spreading boundary causes normal faulting horsts and grabwnsandstone canyon is
erosional landform sandsstone canyon
exposed shield inactive flat stable region in middle of cont plate
stratovlolcao composed of layersof felsic lava and tephra
Created by: 1738400229818217