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A&P Chapter 4

four types of tissue connective, epithelial, muscle, nervous
connective tissue supports and binds other body tissue and parts - liquid (blood), fatty (protective padding) fibrous (tendons & ligaments), cartilage (rings around trachea), solid (bone)
epithelial tissue covers internal and external organs, lines vessels, body cavities, glands & organs
muscle tissue produces movement via contraction & relaxation of muscle fibers
three types of muscle tissue skeletal, smooth/visceral, cardiac
skeletal muscle tissue attaches to bone & is responsible for movement voluntary & striated
smooth/visceral muscle tissue found in the walls of hollow internal organs (i.e. inside stomach & intestines) involuntary and non-striated)
cardiac muscle tissue found in the heart involuntary & striated
nervous tissue transmits impulses, activates, coordinates & controls many of the body functions
Five body cavities Thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, cranial, spinal
Thoracic cavity contains lungs, heart, esophagus aorta, trachea
abdominal cavity contains liver, gall bladder, spleen, stomach, pancreas, intestines, kidneys
pelvic cavity contains urinary bladder & reproductive organs
cranial cavity contains the brain
spinal cavity contains nerves of the spinal cord
What does the dorsal cavity include? Cranial and Spinal cavity (in back)
What is the ventral cavity made up of? Thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavity (in front)
What separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity? the diaphragm
What is the pelvic cavity + the abdominal cavity called? abdominopelvic cavity
What do a group of cells make up? tissues
What do a group of tissues make up? organs
What do a group of organs make up? organ system
What does a group of organ systems make up? an organism
Anterior pertaining to front of the body - toward belly
Posterior pertaining to the back of the body
Ventral pertaining to the front - belly side
Dorsal pertaining to the back
Medial toward the mid-line of the body
lateral toward side of the body - away from mid-line
superficial pertaining to the surface of the body
deep away from the surface - toward inside of body
superior above/upward toward the head
inferior below/downward toward tail or feet
cranial pertaining to skull/cranial
caudal pertaining to tail
distal away from/farthest from the trunk of the body
proximal toward/nearest to trunk of body
neoplasia the new/abnormal development of cells that may be benign or malignant
anaplasia a change in structure of cells, characterized by loss of differentiation & reversion to a more primitive form
aplasia without formation
plantar pertaining to the sole/bottom of foot
dorsum back/posterior surface of a part - top of the foot
another word for coronal plane frontal plane - divides body into front (anterior/ventral) to back (posterior/dorsal)
transverse plane divides body into top (superior/cranial) and bottom (inferior/caudal)
midsagittal plane body midline - divides body into equal right and left halves
medial towards the midline
lateral towards the side of the body, away from midline
cytogoly study of cells
histology study of tissues
membrane thin layer of tissue that covers a surface (lines a cavity or separates) i.e. peritoneum
peritoneum membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall containing viscera
viscera internal organs
cell membrane the outer layer or covering of a cell
how many divisions (segments) of the back? what are they? five cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx
cervical vertebrae C1 - C7 - 7 vertabrae
thoracic vertebrae T1-T12 - 12 vertabrae
lumbar vertebrae L1-L5 - 5 vertabrae
sacrum five fused bones
coccyx tail bone - 4 fused bones
intervertebral disc cartilage that rests between vertebrae acts like a cushion or shock absorber
Created by: gcjlentz