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Chapter 3 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Minoans Earliest civilization on Crete. 1600 B.C..
Myceaneaens Earliest Greek civilization. Conquered Crete from Minoans.
Phoenicians Seafaring civilization in Mediterranean and Aegean Seas.
Polis Greek city-states.
Monarchy Governing system lead by one hereditary king.
Aristocracy Rule by upper class.
Oligarchy Rule by few.
Tyrant Ruled by one man. Often military official.
Phonetic Alphabet Writing system which used 22 letters to make sounds.
Homer Blind Greek poet who wrote Iliad and Odyssey.
Hoplites Greek soldiers.
Secularism Dealing with worldly affairs without personal connection.
Natural Law Forces of nature that cause phenomena.
Socrates Athenian philosopher who focused on ethics and challenging officials.
Plato Athenian philosopher. Student of Socrates.
Aristotle Greek philosopher and scientist from Stageira. Student of Plato.
Cyrus The Great Persian warrior-king.
Satraps Persian government officials that answered to the king.
Delian League Greek alliance formed after Persian Wars. Led by Pericles of Athens.
Peloponnesian War War between Athens and Sparta. Sparta won. 431-404 B.C..
Alexander The Great Macedonian king who conquered Persia, Egypt, and India.
Hellenistic Age Era of Macedonian control after Alexander's death. 323-30 B.C..
Republic Government run by elected officials. Res publica, "thing of the people."
Senate Ruling body of elected officials in Rome.
Patricians Aristocrats in Rome.
Plebeians Lower class in Rome.
Consuls Two executives chosen by the Roman senate.
Tribunes Represented plebeians in Roman government.
Julius Caesar Successful military general who become dictator of Rome and conquered France.
Triumvirate Rule of Three: Julius, Crassus, and Pompey.
Caesar Augustus Nephew of Julius. First emperor of Rome.
Law of Twelve Tables Roman Republic's laws.
Pax Romana 200 years of Roman peace.
Punic Wars Between Rome and Carthage of Africa. 264-146 B.C..
Virgil Roman poet who wrote Aeneid.
Livy Roman historian.
Diocletian Roman emperor who divided the empire into two halves.
Constantine Roman emperor who established Constantinople and legalized Christianity.
Period of Warring States End of Zhou dynasty. Marked by civil war among Chinese warlords.
Legalism Chinese philosophy based on the belief that humans are evil and corrupt.
Daoism Chinese philosophy based on the two opposing forces in nature and the Dao.
Confucianism Chinese philosophy based off 5 key relationships and filial piety.
Shi Huangdi Qin ruler known as China's first emperor. Unified China using harsh rules.
Han Wudi Han emperor known for conquest and expansion of China.
Forbidden City Han capital in Chang'an, only the emperor, family, and close advisers.
Scholar Gentry Class of well educated elite that worked for the Chinese government.
Aryans Indo-European invaders to India.
Caste Social class of hereditary status, no social mobility between classes.
Brahmins Hindu priests, highest social class in caste system.
Kshatriya Hindu warriors and rulers, second social class in caste system.
Vaishya Hindu merchants, artisans, and farmers, third class in caste system.
Shudras Hindu peasants, lowest class in caste system.
Jati Subgroups of families within a caste.
Upanishads Writings which reflect Aryan and Dravidian beliefs. Commentaries on the Vedas.
Reincarnation Rebirth of soul in another life after death.
Hinduism Polytheistic religion, began as a combination of Aryan and Dravidian beliefs.
Buddhism Atheist religion/philosophy, began by Siddhartha Gautama.
Siddhartha Gautama Nepalese prince, founder of Buddhism, first Buddha.
Asoka Third ruler of Mauryan dynasty, converted and spread Buddhism.
Chandra Gaupta Founder of Gaupta dynasty.
Created by: Ujala513