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Rome/Byzantine Terms

TermDefinition
Archaic Smile Statues had a bit of an upturn on their mouth
Verism Realism in art and literature - showed every wrinkle and wart. Wanted to be recognized and shown in their wisdom, experience, and dignity
Patrician Land-owning aristocrats. Elite, rich, and could trace their lineage back to the founding families of Rom
Plebian Members of the poor class
Senator Official Roman position
Orator Eloquent public speaker
Pietas Roman virtue of duty. Country first, family second
Triumphal Arch Representing victory in war. Could represent victory over death in christianity
Coffering Series of sunken panels in a ceiling
Barrel Vault Line of arches. Ex. The Colloseum
Apotheosis The highest point, or climax of something - diefication
Deification Worship or treat someone as a god
Epicureanism System of philosophy based on Epicurus. Ancient school of philosophy founded in Athens. Taught stoicism
Stoicism A philosophy that stressed rational detachment and practical, commonsense principles. Endurance of hardship without a display of feeling or complaint
Pax Romana The peace that existed between nationalities within the Roman empire. Long period of peacefulness established by Augustus
Gladiator A man trained to fight with weapons against other men or wild animals in an arena. Not a popular career.
Fresco Painting done in watercolour on wet plaster so that it becomes fixed as it dries
Insulae A roman apartment
Atrium An unroofed interior or walled courtyard
Triclinium A dining table with couches along three sides used in ancient Rome
Porphyry Reddish rock that important statues are made of because of purple being the royal colour
Spolia reusing decorative parts of other sculptures to make a new sculpture
Iconography both figurative and sympobilc significance of an image
Mosaic Pictures made with little bits of stone
Tesserae Small block of stone or other material used in the construction of the mosaic
Aqueduct A way to bring fresh water into the city
Catacomb An underground cemetary constructed by ancient romans (I believe that whole families were buried in them)
Mystery Religon Religious group which worshipped a single god or goddess (not monotheistic - they still worshiped other gods required by the state). - Members only - Voluntary - Oath to not tell outsiders - Communal meals
Basillica (Go over additional terms) Cross shaped buildings. Early Christian churches were built in this style
Confessor A person who confesses religious faith in the face of opposition, but does not suffer martyrdom
Byzantine The Byzantine empire? Byzantine churches were rich in decoration
Icon Pictures that are made to make you think about God. - Icon = iContact = Icons look specifically at you
Iconoclasm banning or destroying religious images. Because of the commandment, thou shalt not worship any gods before me, they thought that having images of divinity was like worshipping another god
Dome A structure thing on buildings - pretty straight forward
Spandrel The triangular space on the outer curve of an arch
Pendentive a curved triangle of vaulting formed by the intersection of a dome with its supporting arches. The four corners support it so that the dome can be above a wide open space. To make a central dome (ex. In the church of hagia sophia)
Squinch a straight or arched structure across an interior angle of a square tower to carry a superstructure such as a dome
Basket Capital The fancy top of of a column - like two triangles or something
Chi-rho An early Christian symbol that Constantine used. The first greek symbols of Jesus' name
Nave Big open space
Aisle Overflow area on the right and left
Apse Little half circle sticking out of the wall - a curved section of wall. The alter and Christ was here
Transept The long space in the front of the room - for the priests
Narthex Covered porch area outside
Attrium Courtyard outside
Clerestory Row of windows above the aisles. Mean to light the building
Created by: sara_hillyer