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Unit 2 Study Guide

World History

TermDefinition
Dharma Spiritual duties of an individual in Hinduism.
Karma The totality of a persons good and bad deeds. The way in which they affect the individuals fate in the afterlife in Hinduism.
Moksha The escape from the cycle of rebirth in Hinduism.
Who is the founder of Buddhism? Buddha, means the enlightened one.
Nirvana The release from the world and the achievement of peace and enlightenment in Buddhism.
What are the 2 main rivers of China? Yellow and Yangtze.
What made the economy in India? Agriculture and trade.
Atman Your true self in Hinduism.
Anatman The disbelief of your true self in Buddhism.
Middle Way Basic Buddhist teachings of the Eightfold Path; it advises people to live in moderation, avoiding the extremes of either comfort or discomfort in the search for nirvana.
What is the geography of China? Long rivers, fertile soils, temperate climates, and isolated valleys.
Harappa Indus civilization that was named after the first ruins.
Mohenjo Daro Mound of death.
What were the 2 main rivers of India? Indus and Ganges.
Confucianism A belief system based on the teachings of Chinese philosopher Confucius that stressed treating one another humanely and honoring one's family.
Filial Piety A love and respect for one's parents and ancestors.
Varnas Name of the four social classes.
Vedas Sacred writing that includes many details about Aryan history and society.
Daoism A system of ideas and beliefs based on the teachings of Chinese think Laozi, who believed that people should live a simple honest life.
Who was the founder of Daoism? Laozi
Dao The path that human life is set on.
Mandate of Heaven The principle stated that the gods would support a just ruler, but they would not allow anyone to corrupt to hold power. The reason the Shang were overthrown, the Zhou explained, was because they had lost the gods favor.
What is the Silk Road? Historical trade route between China and the Mediterranean.
What are monsoons? Seasonal winds in India.
Who is Shi Huandi? The founding emperor of the Qin Dynasty. Best known as the man who unified China after the long chaos of the Warring States period.
What is the geography of the Italian Peninsula? North is desert and mountains and to the east is the ocean.
Patricians Elected officials among the aristocratic families of Rome.
Plebeians Common people of Rome.
Who were Romulus and Remus? Twin brothers who were raised by a she-wolf and founded the city of Rome in 753 BC.
Latins and Etruscans 1/2 way down the Italian Peninsula, on the west coast is a small river called the Tiber. Latin merchants built a village on one of the hills, called the Palatine, in order to trade with the wealthy Etruscan's that lived north of the river.
What was the culture of Rome and Greek? Very similar. They have the same gods, but with different names. When Rome captured Greece they adopted many of their traditions and ideas.
What is adoption? An important aspect of Roman society. Some families with no sons would adopt in order to keep the family name going.
Pax Romana A period of peace in the Roman Empire lasting from the beginning of Augustus's reign until the death of Marcus Aurelius.
Who is Augustus? 1st emperor of Rome. Established the Second Triumvirate with Marc Antony and Lepidus. He created the imperial system of administration, new coinages, and encouraged trade.
Who is Julius Caesar? Added all of Gaul to the republic. Brought many changes to Rome by giving citizenship to the people in the provinces and gave public land to veterans.
First Triumvirate Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey, and licinius Crassus.
Gaul A group of people that attacked Rome.
Roman Religion The Romans adopted many elements of Greek mythology. Romans did not limit their belief to only a few gods. They made offerings to any gods to ensure Roman prosperity, including gods borrowed from the Egyptians, Mesopotamian, and Persians.
Roman Military All men between the ages of 17 and 46 with a minimum amount of property were required to serve in the army, Army was organized into units called legions, commissioned officers who each commanded a century of 100 men.
Roman Government The aristocracy (wealthy class) dominated the early Roman Republic (RR). The aristocrats were known as patricians. The highest positions in the government were held by 2 consuls who ruled the RR A senate composed of patricians elected consuls.
Consuls The chief executives to run the the government in ancient Rome.
Who said "I found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city or marble" Augustus
Bishops High ranking church official who oversees a group of churches in particular region or city.
Apostles The 12 chosen disciples of Jesus.
Pope Title given to the heads of the Roman Catholic Church.
Messiah A savior sent by god in Judaism.
Diocletian The first emperor. Changed the empire into a monarchy and divided the empire into two.
Roman Roads The Romans built a grid system of roads, many Europeans cities still reflect grid layouts originally planned by Roman engineers.
Roman entertainment Chariot races called circuses, theater such as comedies and satires, mimes, jugglers, dancers, acrobats, clowns, wild animals, battling each other of professional fighters, and gladiator combats.
Constantine The son of the original Caesars, the new emperor who believed in Christianity and built the new capital called Constantinople.
Punic Wars A series of conflict between ancient Carthage and Rome.
Carthage The most powerful city before Rome.
Aqueducts Man made channels used to transport water in ancient Rome.
Latin The language of ancient Rome.
Created by: Sbunn16