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Islam and Empires

TermDefinition
Islam Means submission (to Allah) whose prophet is Muhammad (not treated like a God)
Quran / Koran Holy book of Islam
Hadith Book describing the sayings and actions of Muhammad. (#2 most important after Koran)
Sunnah Book stating the precedents given by Muhammad.
Sharia Book outlining the religious law code punishments.
Mosque A worship place for Muslims
Imam A male prayer leader - not of high power, just leader in regular prayer.
Ulama A Muslim religious scholar
Juma An afternoon Friday prayer
Umma The Muslim community
Shahada The Creed (1) - One Allah and Muhammad is the prophet.
Salat Prayer (2) - 5 times a day towards Mecca
Sawm Fasting (3) - during Month of Ramadan from sunrise to sundown.
Hajj Pilgrimage (4) - to Mecca during 2 weeks in lifetime to Kaaba (stone that fell out of garden of Eve)
Zakat Almsgiving (5) - charity, usually give a percentage of income towards Muslim community
Jihad Means struggle - 2 of them (Greater - struggle to be a better Muslim, lesser - a holy war).
Muhammad Born 570 CE, visited by angel Gabriel to preach one God. The polytheistic government upset so he fled to Medina. When he returns to Mecca, he dedicates the city to Islam
Hijrah Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina
Caliph Muhammad's successors (new leader of Islam) - question between community vs bloodline successor led to division of Islam.
Sunni Branch of Islam believing that the community should choose the successor of Muhammad (leader of Islam) - 85% of Muslims.
Shia (Shiism) Branch of Islam believing that Muhammad's successor should be the new leader of Islam - 15% of Muslims
Ottoman Empire Modern day Turkey's empire from 1250 to 1919 - predominantly Sunni.
Osman Founder of the Ottoman Empire - given a small fiefdom in in Western Asia Minor where it began as a Ghazi (war) state used by caliphates to get power. Since Mongols destroyed Rum, he became independent to expand.
Mehmed the Conqueror Ottoman Emperor who conquered Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul in 1493
Suleiman the Magnificent / Law giver Ottoman Emperor during golden age who reorganized the law code and made the Tomb of Muhammad (The Green Dome). Later on lost interest in government after murdering his son.
Millet system Made by Orhan (Osman's successor) for separate religious minorities to have limited rights (worship own religion, can't hold office / bear arms, pay special tax - becomes a problem when the empire weakens as Balkans/Armenians are persicuted
Sultan Ottoman Empire leader that keeps both secular and religious aspects working parallel to each other
Sharia law Ottoman Empire rule that Ulama (religious scholars) must follow the Koran
Shaykh al-Salam Ottoman Empire religious leader
Grand Vizier Ottoman Empire leader acting like a prime minister - worked for secular (worldly) causes
Sublime Porte Ottoman Empire secular section where Grand Vizier worked - had conflicts with Shaykh al-Salam (Divan - Ministry and Secretary of State)
Janissaries Ottoman Empire disciplined army made up of Balkan Christian boys that were seized and converted - disciplined + loyal
Devshirme Ottoman Empire staffing system for Janissaries where young Christian boys were taken and converted to Islam - loyal b/c could move up, had no home (not attached) and Sultan paid salaries. Loyalty declines as they gain land and relationships
Treaty of Karlowitz Ottoman Empire treaty in 1659 after Suleiman attempts to take over Vienna for the 3rd time and loses land - later in 1900s called Sick Man of Europe.
Safi ad-Din Founder of the Safavid Empire who claimed he was a successor of Muhammad
Ismail Establishes the Safavid Empire - makes Shia the religion and is intolerant of all others - captured Persia and Iraq to solidify empire
Shah Safavid Empire leader
Shah Abbas the Great Safavid Empire greatest leader - during cultural high point in Persia
Isfahan Safavid Empire capital city that flourished during cultural high point
Safavid Empire Modern day Iran and Iraq 1500 - greatest rival of Ottomans - began in region of Tabriz (Iraq / Iran) - predominantly Shiite. Collapsed to Afghani / Turksish attacks, Sunnis, and European influence.
Mughal Empire Modern day Indian subcontinent 1526 -
Babur Mughal Empire founder - nicknamed "The Tiger"
Akbar the Great Mughal Empire greatest leader - held power over entire Indian subcontinent - reorganized the federal government to be more efficient and multinational - had religious toleration (married Hindu princess, Hindus could rise to power
Fatehpur Sikri Mughal Empire capital built as a palace by Akbar the Great, now is in ruins.
Rajputs Mughal Empire Akbar made alliances with these Hindu princes
Jizya Mughal Empire tax repealed to all non-Muslims
Sikh Mughal Empire blend of both Muslim and Hindu religion
Shah Jahan Mughal Empire man who built the Taj Mahal for his wife
Madrasa Mughal Empire religious schools taught in Urdu (official language of Pakistan)
Mansabdari Mughal Empire feudal system that rewards for civil and military service in each state - treated peasants better.
Rubaiyat Mughal Empire poems written by Omar Khayyam
Created by: uriel_magana