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Rubenstein All Vocab

Every single vocab word in the Rubenstein AP Human Geo book

QuestionAnswer
acid deposition sulfur and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere - where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid - and return to Earth's surface
acid precipitation conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog
active solar energy systems solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collecters
agribusiness commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps into the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
agricultural density the ratio of number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
agricultural revolution the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
agriculture deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain
air pollution concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air
animate power power supplied by people or animals
animism belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life
annexation legally adding land area to a city in the US
apartheid laws no longer in effet in South Africa that physically seperated different races into different geographic areas
arithmetic density total number of people divided by the total land area
autonomous religion religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally
balance of power condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries
balkanization process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
balkanized small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ehtnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward eachother
base line an east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the US
basic industries industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution
biodiversity number of species within a given habitat
biomass fuel fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste
blockbusting process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their homes at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood
boundary invisible line that marks the extent of a states territory
brain drain large scale emigration by talented people
branch (of a religion) large and fundamental division within a religion
break-of-bulk point location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another
breeder reactor a nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium
British Recieved Pronunciation (BRP) the dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the UK
bulk-gaining industry an industry in which the final product weighs more than the inputs
bulk-reducing industry an industry in which the final product weighs less than the inputs
business services services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses
cartography the science of making maps
caste the class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law
census tract an area delineated by the US Bureau of the Census, for which statistics are published; roughly the size of a neighborhood
census complete emuneration of a population
central business district (CBD) area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
central place theory theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements
central place market area for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area
centripetal force an attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
cereal grain grass yielding grain for food
chaff husks of grain seperated from the seed by threshing
chain migration migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
chloroflurocarbons (CFC) gas used a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers
circulation short term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis
city-state sovereign state comprising of a city and its immediate hinterland
clustered rural settlement rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
colonialism attempt by one country to establish settlements and impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on another territory
colony a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent
combine a machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field
commercial agriculture agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
compact state a state in which the distance from the center to the boundarty does not vary significantly
concentration the spread of something over a given area
concentric zone model a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
connections relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
conservation the sustainable use and management of a natural resource, through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced
consumer services businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services
contagious diffusion rapid, wide-spread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
cosmogony a set of religous beliefs concerning the origin of the universe
cottage industry manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution
council of government a cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the US
counterubranization net migration from urban to rural areas in MDCs
creole or creolized language a language resulting from a mix of the colonizers language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
crop rotation the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
crop grain or friut gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season
crude birth rate (CBR) total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
crude death rate (CDR) total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
cultural ecology geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
cultural landscape fashioning of a natural landscape of a cultural group
culture the body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition
custom the frequent repitition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characterisic of the group of people performing the act
urbanization process by which pop of cities grow
urbanized area central city and surrounding built-up suburbs
metropolitan statistical area method of measuring functional area of a city
micropolitan statistical area urbnzd. area between 10 and 50,000, and adj counties
sector model model of internal structure of cities with social group arranged around wedges out from CBD
multiple nuclei model city = complex structure with +1 center for activities
squatter settlement area in city with illegal buildings/homemade structures
filtering process of subdivision of houses by waves of low income people
redlining drawing lines on a map for areas where they won’t lend $
urban renewal program where cities identify bad neighborhoods and raze and rebuild new buildings and infrastructure for private developers
public housing gov housing rented to low income inhab. for % of income
gentrification process of middle-class renovation of inner-city
underclass group stuck in a cycle of economic/social problems
peripheral model inner city surrounded by big suburban/business areas tied together by a large ring road
edge cities nodes of consumer and business services around ring road
density gradient density change in an urban area from center to periphery
sprawl progressive spread of development over landscape
greenbelts ring of land used as park or agr to discourage sprawl
zoning ordinances law that limits uses of land and max development density
rush hour peak hour; four 15 minute periods with heaviest traffic
smart growth legislation to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
Ind Rev cause of pop growth in 17-1950
labor-intensive industry where labor cost is high % of expenses
trading blocs where countries cooperate in trade, competes against other blocs
maquiladora factories built by border in mexico to employ cheap labor
textile fabric made by weaving, used in clothing
right-to-work state us state that has passed a law preventing unions
Post-Fordist prod. adoption by companies of flex. work rules, such as teams of workers to do various tasks
site factors location factors related to costs of prod., land, labor, capital
situation factors location factors related to trans. of materials to & from factories
new international division of labor selective transfer of some jobs to LDCs
Created by: arttakesmadness