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Rome & Christianity

Chapter 5 Vocabulary from P/H World History Text 2007

Etruscans people who ruled most of central Italy for a time; Rome adopted their engineering and alphabet
republic new government where people were represented by officials
patricians members of the landholding upper class
consuls elected official from the patrician class; had the power to supervise the administrations and command the armies
dictator ruler with complete control over government; patricians had the power to choose a temporary one in the event of war
plebeians common people, had little influence
tribunes officials from the plebeian class
veto blocking of law; power that the plebeians had
legion basic military unit comprised of 5,000 citizen-soldiers
imperialism establishing control over foreign lands; policy which Rome was committed to
latifundia large estates purchased by wealthy families
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus brothers who were the first to attempt social and political reform; were killed in a series of riots
Julius Ceasar brilliant military commander; defeated Pompey, returned to Rome and forced the senate to make him dictator for life; pushed through reforms; killed by his enemies
Augustus Ceasar's nephew, formerly known as Octavian, who worked with Marc Antony to avenge Ceasar and then defeated Antony for power over Rome; name means "Exalted One" and was the first emperor of Rome; built a a stable government and undertook economic reforms
census Reform ordered by Augustus to make the tax system fair; is a population count of the empire
Hadrian influential Roman emperor; codified Roman law, making it the same for all provinces
Pax Romana Period of peace, prosperity and order in Rome and the lands it ruled
Virgil Roman poet who wrote the Aeneid to show that Rome was as heroic as Greece
satirize make fun of
mosaic pictures made from chips of colored stone or glass
engineering application of science and mathematics to develop useful structures and machines
aquaducts bridge-like stone structures that carried water from the hills into Roman cities
Ptolemy native Grecian and astronomer-mathematician who proposed the theory that Earth was at the center of the universe
messiah What Jesus was believed to be; means anointed king sent by God
apostles meaning "persons sent forth"; 12 were chosen by Jesus to help him preach his message
Paul missionary who did much to spread Christianity after Jesus was put to death
martyrs people who suffer or die for their beliefs; what Christians became known as when they were persecuted for not obeying Roman practices
Constantine emperor who issued the Edict of Milan which granted religious freedom to Roman citizens
clergy those who conduct religious services
bishop a high Church official
patriarch honorary title given to bishops from five important cities who gained more authority
popes the bishops of Rome who claimed authority over all other bishops
heresies beliefs said to be contrary to official church teachings
Augustine one of several important teachers who helped to define Christian theology; from Hippo in North Africa
Diocletian emperor who set out to restore order; divided the emperor into two parts, appointed a co-emperor to rule the western provinces, and slowed inflation
inflation rapid rise of prices
Constantinople the new capital of the Roman empire, moved by Constantine
Huns nomadic people from Asia
mercenaries foreign soldiers serving for pay
Military attacks (essay response) 1. generals focused on political power lead to untrained legions, 2. the power of the Huns weakened Rome's borders, 3. Rome protected by unloyal, unpatriotic mercenaries leaving the empire vulnerable
Political turmoil (essay response) 1. government more oppressive and authoritarian, 2. corrupt officials led to civil wars over succession to the throne
Economic weakness (essay response) 1. division of the empire left the west poorer than the east, 2. long-term failure of reforms like inflation
Social decay (essay response) 1. the rich didn't care to help the poor 2. lack of loyalty and patriotism by military representatives (mercenaries)
Created by: nstag