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Immuno Parasites

WVSOM -- Immuno/Micro -- Parasites

QuestionAnswer
What are the 5 ways in which an antibody, either alone or in combination with other immune system elements, can help to clear or neutralize antigen Ab-assisted phagocytosis; ab + complement lysis; Ab + antigen complexes; Ab neutralization of toxins and viruses; Ab interference with virus/bacteria cell attachment
How does Ab neutralize viruses? IFN alpha/beta signal cytotoxic T cell which binds to MHC class I on the virus via CD8. The MHC II receptor then binds to a T cell (CD 4) releasing ifn gamma to activate NK and macrophages
What is the role of IgE in anti-parasite defense IgE binds to the membrain and then the eosinophil attches to teh IgE to mediate ROI and NO. the antibody acts as a bridge between teh organism and the killer cell
What is teh role of secretory IgA on mucosal surfaces? naive lympohcytes enter submucosal lymphoid tissue from blood. They are activated by antigen in peyer's patch adn enter lymph an return to blood. activated effector antigen lymphocytes circulate in blood and entor submucosal lypmh tissue.
What are ADCC? Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
What mediates ADCC? NK cells
how do NK cells mediate ADCC? antibody binds antigens on surface of target cell. Fc receptors on NK cell recognize the bound antibody. the Fc receptor crosslinks and signals teh NK cell to kill the cell. Target cell apoptoses.
What types of infectiosn woudl you expect to see with Phagocyte defects? infasive fungi and candida
What kind of infections would you expect to see with complement defects? neisseria and encapsulated bacteria
What kind of infectiosn would you expect to see with B-cell defects? encapsulated bacteria
What kind of problem swould you expect to see with T-cell defects? reactivation of herpes, tuberculosis, pneumocystis, HHV8/Karposi; EBV/lmphoma; low virulence mycobacteria; cytomegalovirus
What intracellular killing mechansims are present within activated inflammation? inflammation and fever; microbicidal activity; tissue damage; tumoricidal activity
how do macrophages cause tissue damage? H2O2, acid hydrolases, C2a, TNF alpha
How do macrophages have tumoricidal activity? cytotoxic action; toxic factors (H2O2, C3a proteases, arginase, NO, TNF alpha)
how do macrophages have microbicidal activity? ROS, lysozyme, acid hydolasess, cationic protiens
How does macrophages cause tissue reoganizaion secreted factors such as elastase, collagenase, hyaluronidase, fibroblast tsimulating factors
How do macrophages activate lymphocytes? antigen processing, antigen presentation, IL-1 production
Which IL activates Th2 IL-10
Which IL actiavates Th1? IL-12
How does macrophages actiate fever? Il-6, TNF alpha and IL-1 which are pyrogens
How do macrophages mediate inflamation? prostoaglandins, complement factors, clotting factors
What types of infectiosn woudl you expect to see with Phagocyte defects? infasive fungi and candida
What kind of infections would you expect to see with complement defects? neisseria and encapsulated bacteria
What kind of infectiosn would you expect to see with B-cell defects? encapsulated bacteria
What kind of problem swould you expect to see with T-cell defects? reactivation of herpes, tuberculosis, pneumocystis, HHV8/Karposi; EBV/lmphoma; low virulence mycobacteria; cytomegalovirus
What intracellular killing mechansims are present within activated inflammation? inflammation and fever; microbicidal activity; tissue damage; tumoricidal activity
how do macrophages cause tissue damage? H2O2, acid hydrolases, C2a, TNF alpha
How do macrophages have tumoricidal activity? cytotoxic action; toxic factors (H2O2, C3a proteases, arginase, NO, TNF alpha)
how do macrophages have microbicidal activity? ROS, lysozyme, acid hydolasess, cationic protiens
How does macrophages cause tissue reoganizaion secreted factors such as elastase, collagenase, hyaluronidase, fibroblast tsimulating factors
How do macrophages activate lymphocytes? antigen processing, antigen presentation, IL-1 production
Which IL activates Th2 IL-10
Which IL actiavates Th1? IL-12
How does macrophages actiate fever? Il-6, TNF alpha and IL-1 which are pyrogens
How do macrophages mediate inflamation? prostoaglandins, complement factors, clotting factors
What is the role of cytotoxic Tcells in a virus infection? CD8+ on the cytotoxic T cell targets the cell by Fas ligand targeting Fas (CD95). Caspase is activated and apoptotic cell death occurs OR cell death via other mechanisms occurs.
What will perofrin do? will put a hole in target cell membrane to allow caspase activation
What is a granuloma? space occupying chronic inflammatory lesions that form due to cell-mediated immune reactions
What kid of infectiosn cause granuloma? tuberculosis, leismaniasis adn schistosomiases
What kind of cells are unique to granuloma? giant cell
What IL to Th2 make? IL-10, 4, 5, 13
What antibody to Th2 makes? IL-4/5 signal B cells to produce IgE
What do Th1 do? releases IFN gama to activate Macrophage activation
What inhibits Th1 from producing IFN gamma? IL-10 released by Th2
What is the primary role of NK cells in the immune response? mediate adcc; MHC I send negative signal thus inducing target cell apoptosis
What does NO do in host defense free radical that is toxic to bacteria released by endothelial cells. causes DNA damage and degradation of iron sulfur centers into iron ions
What is the advantage of usign oral or nasal influenza vaccine in place of or in addition to regular vaccine? especially suitable for inducing a mucosal IgA immune response and systemic IgG immune resposne
Created by: tjamrose