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Medical Term Final

Final Study Guide

TermDefinition
anti- against, opposite of
brady- slow
endo- within
epi- above, over, upon, on top
neo- new
pre- to come before
a-, an- without, absence of
ab- away from
bi- two, second
hyper- excessive, abnormally high, above
hypo- deficient, abnormally low, below
intra- within
post- to follow after
sub- under, beneath, below
con- with, together, or jointly
contra- counter or against
meta- after or change
ambi- both
di- double
dipl- double
mono- one
nulli- none
pan- all
poly- excessive, over, many
primi- first
quadri- four
semi- half or partial
tri- three
uni- one
ad- toward
ana- up, toward
dia- through
dis- apart, away
Ec- outside, out
Ecto- outside,out
ep- upon, over, above, or on top
eso- inward
extra- outside
infer- below
para- alongside, abnormal
super- above
supra- above
sym- together or joined
syn- together or joined
an- without, absence of
circum- around
dys- bad, abnormal, painful, difficult
eu- normal, good
heter- different
hetero- different
macro- large
mega- large or great
megalo- large or great
mal- bad
micro- small
pseudo- false
tachy- rapid, fast
trans- through, across, beyond
ultra- beyond normal
par- alongside, abormal
iso- equal
pro- before
peri- around
-al pertaining to
-ectomy surgical excision, removal
-emia condition of blood
-gram a record or image
-ia condition of
-iatry treatment, specialty
-ic pertaining to
-itis inflammation
-logist one who studies
-logy study or science of
-pathy disease
-philia loving, affinity for
-plasty surgical repair
-scope instrument used for viewing
-tic pertaining to
-meter measure, measuring instrument
-drome run or running
-emesis vomiting
-malacia softening
-opsy view of
-oxia condition of oxygen
-phil loving, affinity for
-phagia eating or swallowing
-phasia speaking
-physis growth
-plegia paralysis
-oma tumor
-stasis standing still
-algia condition of pain
-asthenia weakness
-atresia a closure or absence of a normal body opening
-cele hernia, swelling or protrusion
-dynia condition of pain
-osis condition of
-ism condition or disease
-penia deficiency or abnormal reduction in number
-phobia fear
-plasia formation, growth
-rrhagia abnormal discharge
-rrhea discharge
-rrhexis rupture
-sclerosis condition of hardening
-spasm sudden involuntary muscle contraction
-ad toward
-hemia condition of blood
-ous pertaining to
-ary pertaining to
-ac pertaining to
-ar pertaining to
-practic a practice
-centesis surgical puncture
-clasia, -clasis, -clast break apart
-desis surgical fixation or fusion
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy recording process
-pexy surgical fixation, suspension
-phylaxis protection
-stomy surgical creation of an opening
-tome a cutting instrument
-tom an incision
-tripsy surgical crushing
-ion process
-a singular
-rrhaphy suturing
-y process of
-genesis origin, cause
-ptosis drooping
-ist one who specializes
-lysis loosen, dissolve
-megaly abnormally large
-genic pertaining to, producing, forming
-crit to separate
-therapy treatment
-sis state of
-ade process
-lytic pertaining to loosen, dissolve
-metry measurement, process of measuring
append/o, appendic/o appendix
bi/o life
cardi/o heart
cerebr/o brain, cerebrum
dermat/o skin
electr/o electricity
encephal/o brain
gastr/o stomach
hem/o blood
hepat/o liver
hyster/o uterus
laryng/o larynx, voice box
leuk/o white
mamm/o breast
mast/o breast
ment/o mind
nat/o birth
neur/o nerve
path/o disease
proct/o rectum, anus
psych/o mind
rhin/o nose
tonsill/o almond, tonsil
vas/o vessel
abdomin/o abdomen
anter/o front
brachi/o arm
caud/o tail
cephal/o head
cervic/o neck
chondr/i gristle, cartilage
cran/o, crani/o skull
cyt/o cell
dist/o distant
dors/o back
femor/o femur, thigh
glute/o buttock
hom/o, home/o same
ili/o flank, hip, groin
infer/o below
inguin/o groin
later/o side
lumb/o lower back, loin
medi/o middle
organ/o tool
pelv/o bowl, basin
physi/o nature
pleur/o pleura, rib
poster/o back
proxim/o near
super/o above
thorac/o chest, thorax
tom/o to cut
umbilic/o navel, umbilicus
ventr/o belly
aden/o gland
aut/o self
cutane/o skin
cyan/o blue
derm/o, dermat/o skin
follicul/o little follicle
kerat/o hard, cornea
onych/o nail
seb/o sebum, oil
actin/o radiation
albin/o white
carcin/o cancer
cellul/o little cell
chym/o juice
crypt/o hidden
hidr/o sweat
melan/o black
myc/o fungus
pedicul/o body louse
scler/o hard
xer/o dry
trich/o hair
abras/o to rub away
aut/o self
rhytid/o wrinkle
arthr/o joint
articul/o joint
burs/o purse or sac, bursa
carp/o wrist
condyl/o knuckle of a joint
cost/o rib
fasci/o fascia
fibr/o fiber
ischi/o haunch, hip joint, ischium
menisc/o meniscus
muscul/o muscle
my/o, myos/o muscle
myel/o spinal cord, medulla, myelin, bone marrow
orth/o straight
ost/o, oste/o bone
pariet/o wall
patell/o patella
ped/o child
petr/o stone
phalang/o phalanges
phys/o growth
pub/o pubis
radi/o radius
sacr/o sacred, sacrum
skelet/o skeleton
spondyl/o vertebra
kinesi/o motion
tax/o reaction to a stimulus
ten/o stretch, tendon
troph/o development
ankyl/o crooked
kyph/o hump
lord/o bent forward
por/o hole
sarc/o flesh, meat
scoli/o curved
synov/o, synovi/o synovial
tendon/o tendon, stretch
lamin/o thin, lamin
syn/o connect
bacteri/o bacteria
blast/o germ, bud, developing cell
erythr/o red
immun/o immunity, exempt
lymph/o clear water or fluid
splen/o spleen
thromb/o clot
thym/o wartlike, thymus gland
tox/o poison
poikil/o irregular
botul/o sausage
globin/o protein
hydr/o water
iatr/o physician
idi/o individual
necr/o death
noscom/o hospital
nucle/o nucleus, kernal
sept/o putrefying, wall or partition
angi/o blood vessel
aort/o aorta
atri/o atrium
coron/o crown or circle, heart
pector/o, pect/o chest
valvul/o little valve
vascul/o little vessel
ven/o vein
ventricul/o little belly, ventricle
rhythm/o, rrhythym/o rhythm
sten/o narrow
ather/o fatty plaque
tampon/o plug
varic/o dilated vein
tens/o pressure
ech/o sound
man/o thin, scanty
phleb/o vein
pulmon/o lung
son/o sound
sphygm/o pulse
alveol/o air sac, alveolus
bronch/o, bronchi/i airway, bronchus
hem/o, hemat/o blood
lob/o a rounded part, lobe
muc/o mucus
nas/o nose
ox/i oxygen
Pharyng/o throat, pharynx
Phragm/o, phragmat/o partition
Pneum/o, pneumon/o air, lung
sinus/o cavity
trache/o windpipe, trachea
-capnia condition of carbon dioxide
-phonia condition of sound or voice
-pnea breath
-ptysis to cough up
-staxis dripping
atel/o incomplete
coccidoid/o coccidioides immitiscafungus
coni/o dust
cyst/o bladder, sac
embol/o plug
glott/o opening into the windpipe
py/o pus
sphyx/o pulse
tubercul/o little swelling
-ectasis expansion, dilation
dilat/o to widen
ot/o ear
spir/o breathe
-oid resembling
-scopy process of viewing
-tomy incision, to cut
an/o anus
bil/i bile
cec/o blind intestine, cecum
chol/e bile, gall
choledoch/o common bile duct
col/o, colon/o colon
dent/o teeth
duoden/o twelve, duodenum
enter/o small intestine
esophag/e, esophag/o gullet, esophagus
gingiv/o gums
gloss/o tongue
ile/o to roll, ileum
jejun/o empty, jejunum
lingu/o tongue
or/o mouth
pancreat/o sweetbread, pancreas
peps/o, pept/o digestion
peritone/o to stretch over, peritoneum
pylor/o pylorus
rect/o rectum
sial/o saliva
sigm/o the letter s, sigmoid colon
stomat/o mouth
re- back
flux/o flow
halit/o breath
phag/o eat, swallow
steat/o fat
cheil/o lip
cholecyst/o gallbladder
cirrh/o orange
diverticul/o diverticulum
-iasis condition of
lip/o fat
lith/o stone
orex/o appetite
parot/o parotid gland
polyp/o small growth
volv/o to roll
acid/o a solution or substance with a pH less than 7
fec/o feces
lapar/o abdomen
vag/o vagus nerve
-emetic pertaining to vomiting
-spasmodic pertaining to involuntary muscle contraction
albumin/o albumin (a protein)
blast/o germ, bud, developing cell
glomerul/o little ball, glomerulus
gluc/o sweet, sugar
glyc/o, glycos/o sweet, sugar
meat/o opening, passage
nephr/o kidney
pyel/o renal pelvis
ren/o kidney
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
ur/o, urin/o urine
azot/o urea, nitrogen
ket/o, keton/o ketone
noct/o night
olig/o few in number
protein/o protein
-uresis urination
-uria pertaining to urea, urination
en- with in, upon, on, over
spadias/o rip, tear
vesic/o bladder
amni/o, amnion/o amnion
andr/o male
balan/o glans penis
chori/o membrane, chorion
cyes/o, cyesi/o pregnancy
embry/o embryo
epididym/o epididymis
episi/o vulva
fet/o fetus
gravid/o, gravidar/o pregnancy
mamm/o breast
mast/o breast
men/o, menstru/o month, menstruation
orchi/o, orchid/o testis
pen/o penis
prostat/o prostate gland
semin/o seed, sperm
sperm/o, spermat/o seed, sperm
test/o testis, testicles
testicul/o little testis, testicle
urethr/o urethra
zo/o animal, living
vesicul/o small bag
colp/o vagina
-salpinx trumpet, fallopian tube
salping/o trumpet, fallopian tube
ex- outside, away from
lei/o smooth
metr/i, metr/o uterus
oophor/o ovary
ovar/o ovary
vagin/o sheath, vagina
vulv/o vulva
-atresia closure or absence of a normal body opening
-s plural
gyn/o, gynec/o woman
lact/o milk
pseud/o false
toc/o birth
-cyesis pregnancy
plasm/o form
abort/o miscarry
dur/o hard
obstetr/o midwife
-ician one who practices
cerebell/o little brain, cerebellum
gangli/o swelling, knot
mening/i, mening/o membrane
phren/o mind
radic/o, radicul/o nerve root
esthesi/o sensation
phasi/o to speak
-algesia pain
hemi- half
-ar pertaining to
gli/o glue
gnos/o knowledge
narc/o numbness
poli/o gray
-lepsy seizure
-rrhage abnormal discharge
-troph development
-us pertaining to
rhiz/o nerve root
schiz/o to divide, split
somat/o body
-lexia pertaining to a word or phrase
-mania madness, frenzy
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o to bind together, conjunctiva
dacry/o tear
ir/o iris
ocul/o eye
ophthalm/o eye
opt/o eye
retin/o retina
asthen/o weakness
cor/o pupil
-opia condition of vision
presby/o old age
stigmat/o point
-metrist one who measures
-acusis condition of hearing
extern/o exterior
mastoid/o resembling a breast
med/o middle
audi/o hearing
labyrinth/o maze, inner ear
myring/o membrane, eardrum
tympan/o eardrum
adren/o adrenal gland
crin/o to secrete
gonad/o sex gland
hormon/o to set in motion
thyr/o shield, thyroid
thyroid/o resembling a shield, thyroid
acr/o extremitiy
dips/o thirst
hirsut/o hairy
calc/i, calc/o calcium
myx/o mucus
Cheyne-Stokes respiration a repeated pattern of distressed breathing marked by a gradual increase of deep breathing, followed by shallow breathing and apnea
paroxysm a sudden onset of symptomatic sharp pain or a convulsion
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a progressive disease that makes breathing very difficult and is primarily caused by smoking tobacco products
coryza the common cold, caused by a virus that infects the upper respiratory tract, resulting in local inflammation
coccidioidomycosis also called valley fever
laryngotracheobronchitis also called croup
emphysema a chronic lung disease characterized by the symptoms of dyspnea, a chronic cough, formation of a barrel chest due to labored breathing, and a gradual deterioration caused by chronic hypoxemia and hypercapnia
Legionellosis a form of pneumonia that is caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophilia, also called Legionnaires' disease
Pertussis an acute infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the larynx, trachea and bronchi that produces spasmodic coughing, also called whooping cough
asbestosis pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers
silicosis pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of fine silicone dust
edema swelling
embolus a blood clot that moves along with the bloodstream
embolism an occlusion that blocks the flow of blood
pyothorax also called empyema
respiratory distress syndrome a severe respiratory disease characterized by rapid respiratory failure; neonatal for newborns and adult for adults
severe acute respiratory syndrome a severe, rapid-onset viral infection resulting in respiratory distress that includes acute lung inflammation, alveolar damage and atelectasis
upper respiratory infection a generalized infection of the upper respiratory tract (nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx)
acid-fast bacilli smear a clinical test performed on sputum to identify the presence of bacteria that react to acid
arterial blood gases a clinical test on arterial blood to identify the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide
aspiration the removal of fluid, air or foreign bodies with suction
auscultation a procedure that involves listening to sounds within the body as part of a physical examination, often with the aid of a stethoscope
chest x-ray also called chest radiograph, an x-ray image of the thoracic cavity that is used to diagnose tuberculosis, tumors and other conditions of the lungs
continuous positive airway pressure a device that is commonly used to regulate breathing during sleep as a treatment for sleep apnea
expectorant a drug that breaks up mucus and promotes the coughing reflex to expel the mucus
incentive spirometry valuable postoperative breathing therapy, uses a portable spirometer to promote deeper breathing to improve lung expansion after an operation
mechanical ventilation a medical treatment to provide supplemental oxygen to patients in respiratory distress, provides assisted breathing using a ventilator
nebulizer a device used to convert a liquid medication to a mist and deliver it to the lungs with the aid of deep inhalation
TB skin test a simple skin test to determine the presence of tuberculosis infection, also called PPD skin test and Mantoux skin test
ventilation-perfusion scanning a diagnostic tool that uses nuclear medicine, or the use of radioactive material, to evaluate pulmonary function, also called lung scan or V/Q scan
ascites an accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity that produces an enlarged abdomen
flatus the presence of gas, or air, in the GI tract, through the anus is flatulence
gastrodynia also called gastralgia or abdominal pain
cleft palate a congenital defect in which the bones supporting the roof of the mouth, or hard palate, fail to fuse during fetal development, leaving a space between the oral cavity and nasal cavity
cleft lip opening in the upper lip
Crohn disease a chronic inflammation of any part of the GI tract, most commonly the ileum of the small intestine, that involves ulcerations, scar tissue formation, and thickening adhesions of the organ wall, also called regional ileitis or regional enteritis
hemorrhoids a varicose, or swollen, condition of the veins in the anus producing painful swellings that may break open and bleed, commonly called piles
malignant hepatoma also called hepatocellular carcinoma
hiatal hernia protrusion of the cardiac portion of the stomach through the hiatus of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity
inguinal hernia a protrusion of a small intestinal segment through the abdominal wall in the inguinal region
umbilical hernia a small intestinal segment enters through a tear in the membrane covering the abdominal wall at the umbilical region
strangulated hernia requires medical intervention to avoid loss of the affected organ
inflammatory bowel disease a general term that includes the conditions ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease
intussusception infolding of a segment of the small intestine within another segment
irritable bowel syndrome a chronic disease characterized by periodic disturbances of large intestinal (bowel) function without clear physical damage
malabsorption syndrome one form is celiac disease, also called gluten insensitivity enteropathy
polyp any abnormal mass of tissue that projects inward from the wall of a hollow organ
volvulus a severe twisting of the intestine that leads to obstruction
bariatric surgery surgery of the GI tract, procedure for treating obesity
cathartic an agent that stimulates strong waves of peristalsis of the colon
laxative agent that causes mild waves of peristalsis
gastric lavage a cleansing procedure in which the stomach is irrigated with a prescribed solution
colonic irrigation an irrigation procedure performed on the colon to remove unwanted substances, if unwanted material is a fecal blockage, enema is used instead
gavage process of feeding a patient through a tube inserted into the nose that extends through the esophagus to enter the stomach
GI series a common term applied to several diagnostic techniques that provide radiographic examination of the GI tract
upper GI a barium swallow, shake, or meal is ingested to provide x-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
barium enema the administration of barium sulfate into the colon or rectum for a lower GI series of x-rays
stool culture and sensitivity used to identify and kill pathogens suspected to cause disease that affects the GI tract
acute kidney injury a rapid-onset disease of the kidneys resulting in a failure to produce urine, formerly called acute renal failure
end-stage kidney disease failure of both kidneys to form urine from any cause, also called renal failure
urinary incontinence inability to control urination
stress incontinence an involuntary discharge of urine occuring during a cough, sneeze, or strained movement
nephroblastoma also called Wilms' tumor
nephrolithiasis also called renal calculi
nephroptosis also called floating kidney
stricture or stenosis a condition of abnormal narrowing
urinary retention abnormal accumulation of urine within the urinary bladder
blood urea nitrogen a clinical lab test that measures urea concentration in a sample of blood as an indicator of kidney function
creatinine a protein that is a normal component or urine and is a by-product of muscle metabolism
fulguration a surgical procedure that destroys living tissue with an electric current
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy ultrasonic energy from an instrument outside the body is directed onto stones that are otherwise too large to pass through the urethra, pulverizing the stones into tiny particles that can pass with urine flow
pyelogram an x-ray image of the renal pelvis, often used to examine kidney-related disorders
retrograde pyelogram injection of contrast medium into the ureter using a cystoscope
intravenous pyelogram iodine is used as the contrast medium and injected into the bloodstream
renal transplant the replacement of a dysfunctioning kidney with a donor kidney
specific gravity measurement of the density of substances in a liquid compared to water
urinary catheter inserted through the urethra to enter the urinary bladder and is often used to drain urine from a patient who is immobile
meatoscope inserted into the urinary meatus
chancres small ulcers on the skin or mucous membranes
papillomas wartlike lesions on the skin and mucous membranes, commonly called genital warts
benign prostatic hyperplasia prostate gland enlarges to constrict the urethra passing through it, also called benign prostatic hypertrophy
Peyronie disease a hardness, or induration, of the erectile tissue within the penis
phimosis a congenital narrowing of the prepuce opening
paraphimosis glans penis becomes strangulated
priapism an abnormally persistent erection of the penis, often accompanied by pain and tenderness
prostate cancer prostate gland is subject to a form of cancer also called prostatic carcinoma
testicular carcinoma a cancer originating from the testis, most common form is seminoma, arises from sperm-forming cells and metastasizes to nearby lymph nodes
testicular torsion the spermatic cord becomes twisted, causing a reduced blood flow to the testis
anti-impotence therapy a collection of therapies that address erectile dysfunction
digital rectum examination a physical exam that involves the insertion of a finger into the rectum to feel the size and shape of the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum
bilateral orchidectomy also called castration
penile implant the surgical insertion of a prosthesis, or artificial device, to correct erectile dysfunction
prostate-specific antigen a clinical test that measures levels of the protein prostate-specific antigen in the blood
prostate-specific antigen clinical test that measures levels of the protein prostate-specific antigen in the blood
transurethral resection of the prostate gland a procedure that treats BPH through the noninvasive removal of prostate tissue
mittelschemerz abdominal pain occurring during ovulation
breast cancer malignant tumor arising from breast tissue, most common is infiltrating ductal carcinoma
carcinoma in situ form of cervical cancer arises from cells of the cervix, which change in appearance before developing into a spreading malignancy, change in cells is dysplasia
cervical cancer malignant tumor of the cervix, most common is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
endometrial cancer a malignant tumor arising from the endometrial tissue lining the uterus
fistulas abnormal passage from one organ or cavity to another
leiomyomas also called fibroid tumors
ovarian cyst a cyst, or fluid-filled sac, on an ovary that is usually benign and asymptomatic
pelvic inflammatory disease inflammation involving some or all of the female organs within the pelvic cavity
premenstrual syndrome collection of symptoms, including nervous tension, irritability, breast pain, edema and headache
hysteroptosis also called prolapsed uterus
toxic shock syndrome a severe bacterial infection characterized by a sudden high fever, skin rash, mental confusion, acute renal failure, and abnormal liver function
cervical conization procedure to remove precancerous or cancerous tissue from the cervix, often performed with an electrical wire loop called LEEP, loop electrosurgical excision procedure,
dilation and curettage common procedure that is used for both diagnostic and treatment purposes, D&C, cervix is dilated to permit the insertion of a spoon-shaped instrument a curette
endometrial ablation lasers, electricity, or heat may be used to destroy the endometrium
hormone replacement therapy therapy for hormonal management, effective for correcting disrupted menstrual and ovarian cycles
radical mastectomy also called Halsted mastectomy, the entire affected breast is removed, along with muscles and lymph nodes of the chest
Pap smear common diagnostic procedure that screens for precancerous cervical dysplasia cancer, Papanicolaou smear
vaginal speculum an instrument used during a gynecological exam, used to open the vaginal orifice wide enough to permit visual examination of the vagina and cervix
hyperemesis gravidarum symptom of severe nausea and emesis (vomiting) during pregnancy
abruptio placentae premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall
breech presentation abnormal childbirth in which the buttocks, feet, or knees appear through the birth canal first
congenital anomaly an abnormality present at birth
pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia high blood pressure worsens to cause convulsions and possible coma and death, comes from a condition that places a pregnant woman and her child at risk
ectopic pregnancy pregnancy occurring outside the uterus, such as fallopian tube lining or the peritoneum
neonatal respiratory distress syndrome lung disorder of neonates, particularly premature infants, in which certain cells of the lungs fail to mature at birth to cause lung collapse that can result in suffocation, NRDS, also called respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn
placenta previa condition in which the placenta is abnormally attached to the uterine wall in the lower portion of the uterus
abortifacient drug that induces therapeutic abortion
cephalalgia headache
convulsion a series of involuntary muscular spasms caused by an uncoordinated excitation of motor neurons that triggers muscle contraction, also called seizure
neurasthenia also called chronic fatigue and dysphoria
syncope temporary loss of consciousness due to a sudden reduction of blood flow to the brain
Bell palsy paralysis of the face muscles on one side due to damage to the seventh cranial nerve, a palsy is a condition of muscular paralysis
cerebral palsy partial muscle paralysis that appears at birth or shortly afterwards
cerebrovascular accident a stroke
traumatic brain injury involves bleeding that can result in functional losses and death
poliomyelitis inflammation of the grey matter of the spinal cord, often resulting in paralysis, commonly called polio
analgesic pain management
anticonvulsants control convulsions occurring in diseases such as epilepsy
antipyretics effective against fever
evoked potential studies group of diagnostic tests that measures changes in brain waves during particular stimuli to determine brain function
lumbar puncture withdrawl (aspiration) of CSF from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region of the vertebral column below the spinal cord, also called a spinal tap
reflex testing a series of diagnostic tests performed to observe the body’s response to touch stimuli
deep tendon reflexes involving percussion at the patellar tendon and elsewhere and Babinski involving stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot
tissue plasminogen activator as a treatment for stroke, a powerful chemical that dissolves blood clots in vessels supplying the brain
amblyopia “lazy eye,” common cause of vision loss in children
strabismus one or both eyes are crossed
detached retina common cause of blindness, occurs when the retina tears away from the choroid layer of the eye
glaucoma loss of vision occurs when the fluid pressure within the anterior chamber of the eyeball (intraocular pressure) rises above normal and spreads to the posterior chamber, thereby pushing against the delicate retina and optic nerve
hordeolum infection of the meibomian gland, a small gland in the eyelid that secretes lubricating fluid onto the conjunctiva, hordeolum is also called a sty, chronic form is chalazion
macular degeneration loss of visual focus by the progressive deterioration of the macula lutea, a small area of the retina that contains a high density of photoreceptors, known as cone cells
myopia nearsightedness
hyperopia farsightedness
presbyopia reduction in vision due to age
cataract extraction a lens damaged by a cataract is surgically removed and replaced with an artificial lens, intraocular lens (IOL), most common technique is phacoemulsification, or phaco
corneal grafting treatment of corneal damage, injured cornea is removed and replaced by implantation of a donor or synthetic cornea
cryopexy treatment of a detached retina, tiny holes are created through the retina by laser treatment, which welds the retina back in place
scleral buckling treatment of a detached retina, a tiny synthetic band is attached to the white outside layer of the eyeball (sclera) in an effort to push the wall of the eye against the detached retina
radial keratotomy a form of refractive surgery, during which spokelike incisions are made into the cornea, it corrects the refractive error of myopia
tinnitus ringing or buzzing sensation in the ears
vertigo dizziness
cholesteatoma relatively common source of partial hearing loss (paracusis) and ear drainage (otorrhea), the formation of a cyst-like ball of epithelial cells in the middle ear, can enlarge to cause a complete loss of hearing (anacusis)
Ménière disease chronic disease of the inner ear that includes symtpoms of vertigo, or dizziness, and tinnitus, or ringing in the ears
cochlear implant a small electronic device that helps to provide a sensation of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or very hard of hearing
goiter an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by a tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or an infection
hirsutism excessive body hair in a masculine pattern
adrenal virilism excessive production of androgens in women, leads to muscle and bone growth
ketosis an excessive amount of ketone bodies, a waste substance produced when cells are unable to metabolize carbohydrates, in the blood and urine
adrenalitis also called adrenal insufficiency
congenital hypothyroidism the thyroid’s inability to produce normal levels of growth hormone at birth, formerly known as cretinism
Cushing syndrome a disease involving multiple organs, caused by excessive secretion of the hormone cortisol by the adrenal cortex and affecting many organs
Diabetes insipidus hyposecretion of ADH by the pituitary gland, characterized by symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria
diabetes mellitus resistance of body cells to insulin, or a deficiency or a complete lack of insulin production by cells of the pancreas
Hypoadrenalism chronic form is Addison disease
hypocalcemia also called calcipenia
hyperthyroidism chronic form is Graves disease
Hashimoto's disease the thyroid gland comes under attack by the body’s own immune response
myxedema chronic form of hypothyroidism, the subcutaneous layer beneath the skin becomes thick and hard, and the body retains water; aging the skin prematurely while puffing the face and thickening the tongue and hands
pituitary dwarfism the pituitary growth hormone is deficient at birth, resulting in short stature
pituitary gigantism an abnormally high production of pituitary growth hormone before adulthood
fasting blood sugar blood sugar levels are measured after a 12-hour fast
postprandial blood sugar blood sugar levels are measured about 2 hours after a meal
glucose tolerance test a test that may be used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus examines a patient’s tolerance of glucose
hormone replacement therapy a common therapy to counteract hyposecretion
radioactive iodine uptake radioactive iodine is used to track and measure its entry into thyroid gland cells with a scanning instrument
radioiodine therapy the radioactive iodine targets cells within the thyroid gland and destroys them
thyroid scan a procedure measuring thyroid function, an image of the thyroid gland is obtained, usually used to detect a thyroid tumor, called thyroidoma
thyroxine test thyroxine is one of the several hormones produced by the thyroid gland, a diagnostic test measuring thyroxine levels in the blood, often used as a diagnostic test for hyperthyroidism
abscess localized skin swelling that is a sign of inflammation
cicatrix clinical term for scar
abrasion scraping injury to the skin
nevus a pigmented spot on the skin, a mole
pruritus itchy skin
ulcer an erosion through the skin or mucous membrane
cyst a closed sac or pouch filled with liquid or semisolid material
erythema redness of the skin
furuncle abscess associated with a hair follicle
pustule elevated area of the skin filled with pus
verruca a wart
wheal temporary, itchy elevation of the skin
comedo pimple
vesicle a small elevation of the epidermis that is filled with fluid
urticaria small fluid-filled skin elevations caused by an allergic reaction
pallor abnormally pale skin color
papule any small, solid elevation on the skin
keloid an overgrowth of scar tissue
macule a discolored flat spot on the skin, such as a freckle
tinea fungal infection of the skin
alopecia baldness
impetigo contagious bacterial skin infection with a yellowish crust
emollient chemical agent that softens or smooths the skin
debridement wound-cleaning procedure
autograft surgery that uses a patient's own skin as a graft
Created by: Coloneman