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NAU A&P 9

NAU Muscular System

QuestionAnswer
Makes up the quadriceps Rectus Femoris, Vastus Medialis, Vastus lateralis, Vastus Intermedius
Muscles of the lower back Gluteus Maximus, Gluteus Medius, Gluteus Minimus, Iliopsoas, Adductor Longus, Adductor Magnus, Sartorius, Gracilis, Quadriceps Femoris, Biceps Femoris, Semimembranous, Semitendinosus, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Tibialis Anterior, Peroneus or Femorlis Longus
Deep muscles of the back Errector Spinae, Iliocostalis Lumborum, Iliocostalis THoracis, Iliocostalis Cervicis, Longissimus Thoracis, Longissimus Cervicis, Longissimus Capitis, Spinalis Thoracis, Spinalis Cervicis, Spinalis Capitis
Muscles of the trunk Diaphragm, Intercostals, External Obliques, Internal Obliques, Transverse Abdominis, Rectus Abdominis, Perineum, Levator Ani, Trapezius, Rhomboid Major, Rhomboid Minor, Levator Scapulae, Serratus Anterior, Pectoralis Major, Pectoralis Minor
Muscles of the upper extremities Trapezius, Latissimus Dorsi, Pectoralis Major, Pectoralis Minor, Serratus Anterior, Deltoid, Biceps brachii, Brachioradialis, Triceps brachii, Flexor Carpi Groups, Palmeris Longus, Extensor Carpi Groups, Flexor Digitorum Groups, Extensor Digitorium Groups
Muscles of mastication (chewing) Temporalis, Masseter, Intrinsic, Extrinsic, Pterygoid
Muscles of the head Orbicularis Oculi, Orbicularis Oris, Leavtor Palpebrae Superioris, Buccinator, Zygomaticus, Temporalis, Masseter, Intrinsic, Extrinsic, Pterygoid -medial & lateral
Makes up hamstrings Biceps Femoris, Semitendinous, Semimembranous, Sartorius
Muscles that form buttocks Gluteus Maximus, Gluteus Medius, Gluteus Minimus
Is not a muscle but a midline meeting point of tendon aponeurosis Linea Alba
Long muscle that runs the fibula. Plantar flexion of foot. Also supports arch Peroneus Longus or Fibularis Longus
Muscle on anterior aspect of the shin, next to tibia. Dorsiflexion and inversion of foot Tibialis Anterior
Muscle under gatrocnemius and goes into the Achilles tendon in the back of the leg. Plantar flexion of the foot Soleus
Muscle that is the calf of the back of the leg. Plantar flexion of foot and flexion of the leg at the knee Gastrocnemius
Muscle on anterior and lateral surfaces of the femur. Vastus Intermedius
Muscle on medial surface of femur. Extends leg at knee Vastus Medialis
Muscle from greater trochanter and femur. Extends leg at knee Vastus Lateralis
Muscle from iliac spine and acetabulum, front of thigh. Extends leg at knee. Rectus Femoris
Long tendon that runs medial aspect of upper thigh. Flexes & rotates leg medially & extends thigh Semitendinous
Muscle around ischial tuberosity & medial surface of tibia. Flexes & rotates leg medially & extends thigh Semimembranosus
Muscle with 2 heads, runs ischial tuberosity and linea aspera of femur. Flexes & rotates leg laterally & extends thigh Biceps Femoris
Muscle inside of knee to groin region. Adducts thigh and flexes leg at knee Gracilis
Muscle outside of hip to knee. Allows rotation of knee. Sartorius
Major muscle of the medial aspect of the thigh. Adducts thigh, posterior portion extends & anterior portion flexes thigh Adductor Magnus
Long muscle of the medial aspect of the thigh. Adducts, flexes and rotates thigh laterally Adductor Longus
Muscle at the iliac bone. Connects leg to the trunk. Flexes thigh Iliopsoas
Muscle that runs along the spine in the thoracic region. Extends vertebral column Spinais Thoracis
Muscle that runs along in the lower cervical & upper thoracic vertebrae. Extends vertebral column Spinalis Capitis
Muscle on the sacrum, coccyx & posterior surface of ilium. Extends thigh at hip Gluteus Maximus
Muscle at the lateral surface of ilium. Abducts and rotate thigh medially Gluteus Medius
Smallest muscle at the lateral surface of ilium. Abducts & rotates thigh medially. Gluteus Minimus
Muscle that runs along the spine in the cervical region. Extends vertebral column Spinalis Cervicis
Ling muscle that is in lower cervical & upper lumbar region of vertebrae. Extends & rotates head. Longissimus Capitis
Long muscle that runs the cervical region of vertebrae. Extends cervical region. Longissimus Cervicis
Long muscle that runs thoracic region of vertebrae. Extends thoracic region. Longissimus Thoracis
Muscle that runs the ribs of the cervical region of the vertebral column. Extends cervical region Iliocostalis Cervicis
Muscle that runs the ribs of the thoracic region of the vertebral column. Holds spine erect. Iliocostalis Thoracis
Muscle that runs the lumbar region of the ribs of the lumbar vertebral column. Extends lumbar region Iliocostalis Lumborum
Muscle on top of temporal bone. Elevates mandible and shuts mandible shut Temporalis
Major chewing muscle. Moves mandible Masseter
Muscle allows movement of tongue for chewing, speaking and contortion Intrinsic and Extrinsic Muscles
Muscle that aids in the movement of the mandible Lateral and Medial Pterygoid
Muscle that goes from sternum to clavicle to neck. Major rotator of neck. Sternocleidomastoid
Muscle named for size and location, attached to the cheek. Raises corner of mouth when smiling. Zygomaticus major and minor
Muscle that compresses cheek inward. Helps with smiling & allows whistling Buccinator
Muscle that elevates eyelids or raises eyebrows Levator Palpebrae Superioris
Circular muscle around the mouth. Allows pucker for kissing and closing lips Orbicularis Oris
circular muscle around the eyes. Allows eyes to squint and blink. Orbicularis Oculi
Muscle that goes from the middle of the vertebrae to the back of the head. Extends head Semispinalis capitis
Muscle in the middle aspect of head. Rotates head, bends head to one side or extends neck. Splenius Capitis
Sheet of muscle that covers anterior aspect of neck. Platysma
Muscle that is a tooth-like projection that runs rib to rib. Pulls scapula downward. Around the upper ribs Serratur Anterior
Muscle on top Major
Muscle on bottom Minor
Muscle on the front around tissue. Moves humerus and ribs. Pectoralis Major and Minor
Muscle around the sides of the lower thoracic & lumbar regions. Lateral superficial back muscles. Love handles. Extension and adduction of arm. Latissimus Dorsi
Muscle which has 2 heads. Forms upper arm. Flexes forearm at elbow and rotates hand laterally Biceps Brachii
Triangular shaped muscle of the upper arm. forms shoulders. Abducts, extends and flexes arm. Deltoid
Muscle at distal end of humerus. Helps form upper arm. Flexes forearm at elbow. Bracioradialis
Muscle near thumb, flexes wrist. Will sometimes get trapped with nerve causing carpal tunnel. Palmeris Longus
Muscle that has 3 heads. Helps forms upper arm. Extends forearm at elbow Triceps Brachii
Muscle group in front of fingers. Flexes distal joints of the fingers. Brings fingers to the palm Flexor digitorum groups
Muscle group at the back of fingers. Extends fingers away from the palm Extensor digitorum groups
Muscle group that is the hands and wrist. Flexes wrist, abducts and adducts wrist. Flexor carpi groups
Muscle group at the back of the hands and wrist. Extends wrist & abducts hand Extensor carpi groups
Muscle that is responsible for movement of rib cage. Intercostals
Superficial muscle at the back of the head to the back of the neck. Rotates scapula. Muscle that becomes stiff during stress Trapezius
Muscle that separates the thoracic & pelvic group. Helps with breathing. Diaphragm
Muscle near sternal ends of upper ribs. Pulls scapula forward & downward. Raises ribs Pectoralis Minor
Muscle near clavicle, sternum and upper ribs. Flexes, adducts and rotates arm medially. Pectoralis Major
Muscle that elevates the scapula. Found around the cervical vertebrae Levator Scapula
Muscle in outer surface of ribs. Moves head downward to the midline of the body, towards abdomen. External Oblique
Slanted triangular muscle that is deep to the back. Retracts and elevates scapula Rhomboid minor
Slanted triangular muscle that is superficial n the back. Retracts, elevates and rotates scapula. Rhomboid major
Muscle that runs perpendicular of the midline of the body. Tenses abdominal wall. Transverse abdominis
Muscle that is responsible for 6-pack. Parallel to midline. Flexes lumbar spine. Rectus Abdominis
Pelvic Floor Perineum
Muscle that elevates the anus. Near pubic bone and ischial spine. Levator ani
Muscle that runs up & down spine. Helps with posture. Erector Spinae
7 different names for muscles based on action. Generally in pair Flexor-extensor, Abductor-adductor, depressor-levator, Supinator-pronator, Sphincter, Tensor, Rotator
3 different names for muscle based on the number of origins. Biceps, Triceps, Quadriceps
4 different muscle names for directions of fibers Rectus, Transverse, Oblique, Circular
5 different names for muscle sizes Maximus, Medius, minimus, Longus, brevis
Name for large muscles Maximus
Names for mid-size muscles Medius
Names for small muscles Minimus
Names for long names Longus
Names for short muscles Brevis
Back of the head Capitis
Types of contractions Tone, Isotonic, Isometric
Partially contracted state of the muscles at rest, enhanced with exercise Tone
Tension within the muscle remains the same, but the muscle shortens. Ex: weight lifting Isotonic
Tension within the muscle increases but the muscle length remains the same. Ex: push ups Isometric
Types of attachment Origin, insertion
The less movable, fixed attachment Origin
The more movable portion that puts the muscle into action Insertion
Types of muscle movements Rod & rigid bar, Resistance, Force, Fulcrum (Pivot)
Bone movement type Rod or Rigid Bar
Force of movement working against us Resistance
The force we utilize to make a movement Force
Also known as a pivot Fulcrum
The force we are moving around Fulcrum or Pivot
3 parts involved in muscle movement Prime mover, antagonist, synergist
The muscle that initiates the movement Primer Mover
The muscle that moves opposite of the prime mover Antagonist
Stabilizing muscles. Ex: keeps you from looking drunk when walking Synergist
7 types or ways of naming muscle groups By location, size, shape, direction of fibers, number of origins, action, origin & insertion location
Structure of a surrounding muscle Inidividual muscle fibers, Endomysium, Fasicles, Perimysium, Epimysium, Tendon
Simplest form of a muscle Individual muscle fiber/filament
Wrapping around the individual muscle fibers OR a group of muscle filaments Endomysium
Means inside Endo
Means Around Peri
Bundles of wrapped individual muscle fibers or a filament or fiber plus endomysium Fasicle
Muscle tissues involved in movement Cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, smooth muscle
The merging of the endomysium, fasicles, perimysium and epimysium into this Tendon
Striated, involuntary muscle, intercolated disks, contain gap junctions to allow passage of ions & form a binding site between fibers. Found in heart. Cardiac muscle
Non-striated, involuntary muscle. Found in walls of organs and digestive tract. Smooth muscle
Product from nerve. Has to be received by the muscle in order for movement. Neurotransmitter
Gap where the axon of neuron comes in close proximity to a muscle. Synaptic Cleft
The site where an axon and muscle fiber meet Neuromuscular Junction
The shortening of muscle fibers Muscle contraction
Less than the appropriate amounts of neurotransmitters that are released & received in short supply. Ex: Twitch Sub-threshold Stimulus
Adequate amounts of neurotransmitter and therefore is transmitted into a full contraction. Threshold Stimulus
Muscle has striped. These are formed by protein molecules and how molecules line up. Striated muscle
Thin bands of material A or Actin Bands
Think bands of material M or Myosin Bands
Two kinks of proteins actin & myosin fibers Myofibril
Anchor point on muscles Z-Line
Contains only actin bands I-Bands
Bands of myosin overlapping actin bands A-Bands
Bands of myosin only H-Zone
Functional unit of muscle, or the contracting unit. The distance between 2 Z-Lines Sacromere
Functions to hold filaments in place M-Lines
Creatine phosphate sacrifices itself to the ADP to create ATP. Is short term energy Direct Phophorylation of ADP by Creatinine Phosphate
Requires oxygen generates 2 pyruvate or 34-36 ATP. Slow energy but long term Aerobic Respiration
Without oxygen. First part of energy production. Fast energy. Anaerobic glycolysis & lactic acid formation
Types of energy needed for muscle contraction Direct Phophorylation of ADP by Creatinine Phosphate; Aerobic Respiration; Anaerobic glycolysis & lactic acid formation
Is associated with muscle pain and soreness from exercise. Lactic Acid Build up
3 different names of muscle shapes Deltoid, Trapezius, Rhomboid
Created by: FKrouse