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WH: Chapter 8

Enlightenment and Revolutions 1500-1800

QuestionAnswer
PHILOSOPHER a person who seeks wisdom or enlightenment; a scholar or a thinker
1. geocentric Earth-centered; a system of planetary motion in which the sun, moon, and other planets revolve around the Earth
SPHERE any of the concentric, revolving, spherical transparent shells in which, according to ancient astronomy, the stars, sun, planets, and moon are set
2. heliocentric sun-centered; the system of the universe in which the Earth and planets revolve around the sun
3. universal law of gravitation one of Newtons three rules of motion; it explains that planetary bodies continue in elliptical orbits around the sun because every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a forces called gravity
4. rationalism a system of thought expounded by Rene Descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge
5. scientific method a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence that was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world
6. inductive reasoning the doctrine that scientists should proceed from the particular to the general by making systematic observations and carefully organized experiments to test hypotheses or theories, a process that will lead to correct general principles
7. philosophe applied to all intellectuals during the Enlightenment
8. separation of powers a form of government in which the executives, legislative, and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances
9. deism an 18th century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law
10. laissez-faire the concept that the state should not impose government regulations but should leave the economy alone
GENERATION a group of individuals born and living at the same time
11. social contract the concept that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will and all individuals should be forced to abide by it since it represents what is best for the entire community
ARBITRARY at one's discretion; random
12. salons the elegant urban drawing rooms where, in the 18th century, writers, artists, aristocrats, governmental officials, and wealthy middle-class people gathered to discuss the ideas of the philosophes
13. rococo an artistic style that replaced baroque in the 1730s; it was highly secular, emphasizing grace, charm, and gentle action
14. enlightened absolutism a system in which rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers
RIGID inflexible, unyielding
15. successor one that follows, especially one who takes over a throne, title, estate, or office
EVENTUALLY in the end
16. federal system a form of government in which power is shared between the national and state governments
17. AMENDMENT an alteration proposed or effected by parliamentary or constitutional procedure
18. GUARANTEE to assure fulfillment of a condition