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Islamic Achievements

Islamic Contributions to the Modern Wold

TermDefinition
Caliph a successor of Muhammad as spiritual and temporal leader of the Muslims
Sunni a Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of the Umayyad's as the true rulers of Islam
Shiite A member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali and his descendants as the legitimate successors to Muhammad and rejects the first three caliphs.
Koran the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Allah is a Divine name of God. It is the perfect name for God as it truly denotes the absolute Oneness of God. The name has no plural and no feminine form.
Arabesque Complex designs typical of Islamic art combining intertwining plants and geometric patteren
Minaret a narrow tower from which Muslims are called to prayer
Imam means Leader in Arabic. The term is generally applied to religious leaders. However, there are 12 infallible and noble Imams, the descendants of Muhammad (S.A.W.).
Hajj is the Islamic pilgrimage
Mecca is a holy city in Arabia
Medina means city, and Medinatu'l Nabi (the city of the Prophet) was the name taken by the citizens of Yathrib, the town to which the Prophet (S.A.W.) and his companions migrated during Hijrah
Muhammad founder of Islam; he spread Islam’s teachings to the people of Arabia. His teachings make up the Qu’ran.
Shari'a Law Divine laws telling Muslims how to livee
Calligraphy decorative writing
Mosque a building for Muslim prayer and worship
Minarets the tower of a mosque from which the muezzin calls the faithful to prayer fives times a day.
zoology study of animals; wrote books describing the structure of animal; discovery of medicine using different animal parts; theories on evolution of animals were introduced.
Astronomy Used for navigational tools; to locate the exact location of Mecca for prayer; the exact times for prayer Earth was the center of the Universe
Irrigation because of scarce water sources they built dams, aqueducts, water wheel
textiles Manufactured fabric made from Woven cotton, wool, silk and Linen; vibrant colors and designs
Music Europe First Music conservatory school began in Cordoba Spain in 822
Muslim City lands had numerous large Cities
Muslim City Building and Architecture The Unique style of mosques and Minarets are still recognized today
Muslim Building Included palaces, schools, orphanages, and mosques
Muslim Architecture Mosques ( means house of worship) were distinct in their design and architecture. Minarets were tall and narrow towers that were used to call the people to worship or prayer
Muslim Scholarship Were highly valued along with learning
Muslim Learning Musilm rulers built schools, college, Libraries (House of Wisdom 830 AD)
Muslim Learning Translation Research text from Greece, Rome, Persia, India and China and Translation
Muslim Learning and Logic Reason to prove important truths like the Greeks
Muslim Learning Translation Influence The translation of Greco - Roman scholars encouraged European thinkers to do the same.
Muslim Scholarship and Learning Modern Connection The work of Muslim scholars not only preserved, but advanced Greco- Roman scholarship. This will be passed to the Europeans at the end of the Middle Ages and will be the spark for the Renaissance.
Muslim Science and Technology Consisted of Zoology, Astronomy and Irrigation
Muslim Science and Technology Modern Connection The Sun - Centered (Solar centric) theory is now a known truth.
Muslim Geography Traveled to foreign lands in Africa, Asia, and Europe
Muslim Navigation Created maps and atlases for fellow travelers to gain knowledge
Muslim Geography Study Plants animals, climates and resources of explored lands
Muslim Navigation tools Improved the compass (from the Chines) and astrolabe (from the Greek)
Muslim Geography and Navigation Modern Connection The Maps and description of lands encouraged more travelers to explore newly discovered lands. The improvements in the technology will influence European explorers which lead to the discovery of North and South America.
Muslim Mathematics Algebra was founded in the Islamic Empire (mathematician al-Khwarizmi is known as the father of Algebra)
Muslim Mathematics Material Books that spread throughout Europe, Africa, and the Middle East help popularize Arabic numerals
Muslim Mathematics Modern Connection Algebra is still the basis for higher level mathematics (calculus and trigonometry)
Muslim Medicine Established the world's first hospitals
Muslim Medicine treatment Treated ailments with drugs, diet, exercise and surgeries
Muslim Medicine causes Infections were caused by bacteria
Muslim Medicine Modern Connection The use of Medicine and various herbs are still the primary method for treating ailments.
Muslim Bookmaking Learned paper making from the Chinese
Muslim Literature Poetry and storytelling was important aspects in Muslim culture
Muslim Literature encouragement Growth of Muslim literature and culture
Muslim Bookmaking and Literature Spread the idea of the importance of books to record history and culture. These books will influence Europe.
Muslim Art and Music Geometric and Floral design - (Arabesque) Calligraphy Textiles Music
Muslim Recreation - Polo Barrowed from the Persians; seen as a pastime for the wealthy because of the expensive cost of the Arabian horses
Muslim Recreation - Chess Battle of wits and intellect, borrowed from the Persians
Muslim Recreation Modern Connection Both Polo and Chess are still popular around the world.
5 Pillars of Islam The Shahada/Faith The Salat/ Prayer The Zarat/ Amos The Sawm/Fasting The Hajj/Prilgrimage
The Shahada/Faith Testimony Declaration of Faith
The Salat/ Prayer Mandatory Prayers 5 times a day
The Zarat/ Amos Giving to the Poor
The Sawm/Fasting Fast during Holy Month of Ramadan Self Purification No eating or drinking during Ramadan for Sunup and Sunset
The Hajj/Prilgrimage Pilgrimage to Mecca Must be done at least once 2-3 million Muslims make the Pilgrimage every year
After Muhammad's death New Leaders is elected
After Muhammad's death Religion In 680 there is a split in Islam. Most Muslims are Sunni and some are Shia
After Muhammad's death Sunni Most Muslims are Sunni accept elected leaders
After Muhammad's death Shia Some are Shia which believes only in decedents of Muhammad) - Blood relative of Muhammad
Created by: spotsville2