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Edumed Phlebotomy

All information from class and worksheets

Which prefix means "decreased"? Hypo-
What is the meaning of the prefix phlebo-? Vein
What prefix means "after"? Post-
What suffix means "surgical removal"? -ectomy
What suffix means "inflammation"? -itis
What suffix means "blood condition"? -emia
What is the medical term for "white blood cell"? Leukocyte
What is the plural form of the word thrombus? Thrombi
What does the abbreviation "CA" mean? Cancer
What suffix means "disease"? -pathy
What root means "kidney"? Nephr-
What abbreviation means "immediately"? STAT
What does the abbreviation "NPO" on a patient's door mean? Nothing by Mouth
What does the root word Cardio- mean? Heart
What does the root tox- mean? Poison
What prefix means "black"? Melano-
What prefix means "blue"? Cyan-
What prefix means "increased"? Hyper-
What does the abbreviation "PRN" mean? As needed (as required)
What prefix means "inside"? Endo-
CBC Complete Blood Count
Hct Hematocrit
Hgb Hemoglobin
Abd Anti-DNase-b Strep A Test
AFB Acid Fast Bacili Active TB Infection
alb Albumin Looks at how well kidney and liver are working
bid "bis in die" Twice per day
bls Basic Lifesaving Support ~ CPR
bm Bone Marrow or Bowel Movement or Breast Milk
bx Biopsy
C&S culture and sensitivity (antibiogram)
CT Computed Tomography or Calcitonin, Thyrocalcitonin
CCU Critical Care Unit Coronary Care Unit
CHF Congestive Heart Failure
chol Cholesterol
COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
CPK Creatine Phosphokinase
CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CSF Cerebrospinal fluid or Colony Stimulating Factor
CXR Chest X-Ray (radiograph)
DC Discharge or Discontinuted
diff Differiential
DMR Direct Myocardial Revascularization
DOB Date of Birth
Dx Diagnosis
ED Emergency Department or Every Day or Erectile Disfunction
ENT Ear, nose, throat
EKG Electrocardiograph
FBS Fasting blood sugar
FSH Follicle Stimulating Hormone
FUO Fever of Unknown Origan
GB Gall Bladder or Gastric Bypass
GI Gastrointestinal Track or Glycemic Index or Growth Inhibitory
GTT Glucose Tolerance Test
gyn Gynecology
H&H Hematocrit and Hemoglobin
HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
hct Hematocrit value
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
ICU Intensive Care Unit
INR Insulin Receptor
IV Intravenous Infusion or Intravenous catheter
K Potassium
L&D Labor and Delivery
lab Laboratory
LDL Low Density Lipoprote
STAT Statim = immediately
LMP Last Menstrual Period
MI Myocardial Infarction
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MVA Motor Vehicle Accident or Modified Vaccine Virus Ankara
Na Sodium or Not Applicable
neg Negative
noc(t) Nocturnal or At night
NPO Nothing by mouth
O2 Oxygen
pH Hydrogen ion Concentration
PKU Phenylketonuric = inability to metabolize phenylalanine(plant Amino Acid) left untreated can cause brain or nerve damage.
Plt Ct Platelet Count
prn "Pro Re Nata" or As needed
PT Prothrombin time or Pregnancy Test or Physical Therapy
PTT Partial Thromboplastin Time
RBC Red Blood Cell
R/O Rule Out or Risk Of
TH Thyroid Hormone
TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
WBC White Blood Cell
SPS and ACD Sodium polyanethol sulfonate and Acid Citrate Dextrose - in sterile yellow top tubes. Maintains the red cell viability
Needles and lancets are which type of safety hazard? Sharps
What is the term for an object that is contaminated by bacteria? Fomite
Which of the following is the first action you should take if you have been stuck with a used needle that has been in contact with blood? Flood the exposed area with water and clean the wound with soap and water or disinfectant
What bone is close to the surface and at risk of being damaged during a heel puncture? Calcaneus
If the number on the requisition does not match the arm band, what should you do? Return to the lab and tell your supervisor
When collecting blood from a vein in the back of the hand, where should the tourniquet be placed? Just above the wrist
What is the term for the hollow tube inside a needle's shaft? Lumen
What is the first step in routine blood collection? Gather correct supplies needed for the draw
Which department within the laboratory performs complete blood counts? Hematology
How far from the puncture site should the tourniquet be placed? 3-4 inches above the puncture site
Which Laboratory department would normally perform a prothrombin time (PT) test? Coagulation
What color tube should be collected for coagulation studies? Light Blue Top Tube
What is the single most important means of preventing the spread of infection? Hand washing
How should a needle be inserted for venipuncture? Bevel up, in a smooth quick motion
What color tube should be collected for a CBC? Lavender
What is the term for invasion and growth of a disease-causing microorganism in the human body? Infection
What is the term for destruction of red blood cells due to a too-tight tourniquet? Hemolysis
According to the Bloodborne Pathogens Standards, who is responsible for providing PPE to an employee? The employer must provide and pay for PPE
What is the first step that should be taken immediately after withdrawing the needle from a patient? Ingauge the safety device and apply pressure to the puncture site
Correct order of steps when conducting routine blood draw... Select equipment based on tests ordered, correctly identify patient, collect specimen, stop bleeding, label tubes.
The anticoagulant EDTA works by binding which substance needed for blood clotting? Calcium
What doe the term multisample needle mean? The needle has a retractable rubber sleeve that covers one end of the needle when a blood collection tube is not attached
Which needle size is most commonly used for routine venipuncture? 21g
Which laboratory department performs blood typing? Immunohematology
Which of the following acronyms refers to barriers used to protect skin, mucous membranes, and clothing from infectious agents? PPE = Personal Protective Equipment
A tube containing thixotropic gel could be used to collect blood for which of the following tests? Chemistry Screen
What does the term reservoir mean? A person who carries a disease agent but is not sick
Before drawing blood, information found on a requisition form should be matched against ... In-patient - patient's wrist band Out patient- ask the patient to state his/her name and DOB
What is the maximum acceptable depth for a heel puncture? 2mm
Which anticoagulant is used for coagulation studies? Sodium Citrate
Which of the following may cause a hematoma? Going through the back side of the vein when inserting the needle
What is the maximum amount of time a tourniquet can be left on? 1 minute
What is the term for a collection of blood under the skin at the site of a venipuncture? Hematoma
Which of the following tubes should be drawn first? Blood culture tubes
What color vacuum tube should be drawn for trace metal analysis? Royal blue top tube
The pathogen West Nile virus is carried by mosquitos? What type of transmission is this? Vector transmission
A patient has a seizure while you are performing a venipuncture. What should you do? Remove the tourniquet and needle immediately and call the nurse for help
For a phlebotomist, what is the principal occupational risk for infection? Infection from an accidental needle stick
The emergency department has requested that a blood alcohol level be drawn on a patient. What is the proper way to obtain the specimen? Clean the site with betadine (providone-iodine) and perform a routine venipuncture with a gray top tube
What is the single most important step of the blood collection procedure? Patient Idenitfication
What is the term for infections contracted by patients during hospitalization? Nosocomial infections
What is the preferred method of blood collection in newborns and infants? Dermal puncture
When should blood collection tubes be labeled? At the patient's bedside, after taking the blood
When you tell a patient that you need to draw blood, he says that he does not want to have his blood drawn. What is the appropriate action? Explain the procedure and ask the patient if he will consent. If he still refuses, inform the ordering provider and document on the requisition
A double sided needle is used for what type of blood draw? Venipucture
Stating a patient's name is an acceptable form of patient identification. True or False FALSE - Ask the patient to state his/her name and DOB
What organization is responsible for minimizing workplace injuries? OSHA
Various subspecialties exist within the laboratory. The one that studies blood blood-forming tissues is _______. Hematology
Allison, age 4 months, needs to have a blood test performed. The phlebotomist will collect capillary blood from what site for this infant? Heel
Sara, age 12, is about to have her blood drawn. She asks the phlebotomist, "will it hurt?" What would be an appropriate response? "You will feel it, but if you keep still it will not take long"
You have just entered the laboratory and another team member requests that you label her remaining tubes with the labels on the counter. What would be an appropriate response? "I do not feel comfortable labeling specimens I did not collect."
List the six steps of the chain of infection. 1) Infectious agent 2) Reservoir 3) Portal of exit 4) Mode of transmission 5) portal of entry 6) susceptible host
The veins most commonly used for venipuncture are located in the middle of the arm: this area is referred to as the ______. antecubital fossa
Coagulation studies have been ordered. Which tube would you choose to obtain a PT and PTT? Light Blue Top Tube
To prevent puncturing a bone during dermal puncture, the depth should not exceed____. 2mm
What additive is in the Lavender top tube and how does it work? EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Triacetic Acid) Works by binding to Calcium molecules
Excessive squeezing of the dermal puncture site often leads to specimen_____. Hemolysis
You are called to obtain a dermal specimen from a patient after two other phlebotomist were unable to obtain it. What should you do to attempt to increase the blood flow of the capillary blood to the puncture site? Apply warm compress to the preferred site
An agent that inhibits the growth of bacteria is _______ bacteriostatic
Routine venipuncture needles are usually _____ 21 to 23 gauge and 1 inch long.
The most common dietary restriction that affects specimen collection is ____ fasting.
You are to obtain a serum potassium level from Mrs. J, a hospitalized patient. You enter her room and observe that she has an IV of potassium infusing in her left arm and a sign above the bed that says "NO VENIPUNCTURE IN RIGHT ARM". Following actions? Collect the blood from a site below the IV line.
The physician has ordered a blood alcohol test. What is an important handling consideration for this test? Do NOT use alcohol to clean site, use Betadine.
What laboratory test require the specimen to be protected from light during collection and shipping? Vitamin B and Bilirubin
When collecting capillary specimens, what is the first thing you do before collecting the blood into the microcollection device? wipe away the first drop of blood with a clean, dry gauze
Glucose testing aids the physician in diagnosing _____ diabetes mellitus
The first component of the glucose tolerance test is to collect fasting blood and urine specimens
A physician can supervise an individuals's drug or medication treatment by using ______ therapeutic drug monitoring
The anitcoagulant is a gray-stoppered blood collection tube is : potassium oxalate
A gray-stoppered evacuated tube prevents glycolysis and coagulation. What additives does this tube contain? Sodium fluoride - glycolic inhibitor Potassium Oxalate - anticoagulant.
Which tubes are specially designed to be free from lead? Tan/Royal blue tubes
Which tube is designed to be free from all trace metals? Royal Blue tube
Capillary tubes are also referred to as: microhematocrit tubes.
Alcohol pads contain what percent isopropyl alcohol? 70%
Isopropyl alcohol is a bacterialstatic antiseptic. What does bacterialstatic antiseptic mean? Inhibits the growth of bacteria
What tube color should be collected when a CBC (complete blood count) is ordered? Lavender Top
Which agency writes the standards stating that a new tourniquet must be used for every patient? CLSI
One type of needle used by a phlebotomist is a butterfly. What is another name for this butterfly needle? Winged Infusion
Collecting blood into an evacuated SST tube before collection of the sodium citrate tube may cause: Contamination of coagulation specimens
What is a hub used for? Holding the needle and evacuated tubes during venipuncture
When selecting a vein in a patient's antecubital area, what action will help you to determine the size, depth, and direction of the vein? Palpate the patient's antecubital area
You are assembling equipment for a venipuncture and notice that the date on the needle's sterility label has passes. How should you proceed? Discard the needle because its sterility is in question
During a venipuncture, if the area surrounding the vein begins to swell, creating a hematoma, you should first: Remove the tourniquet.
Underfilling an evacuated tubes is possible if the tube is removed from the assembly before it is completely filled. If the evacuated tubes is a Sodium Citrate tube, what could happend? Too little blood will be drawn for the proper blood to anticoagulation ratio
What will happen if a tourniquet is left on too long? Hemoconcentraiton
During a venipuncture, some blood flows into the evacuated tube and then stops. What are some reasons this could happen? 1)The needle is too close to a valve 2) The needle might have slipped out of the vein 3) The tube may be expired
The basis for Standard Precautions during blood collection is that: any patient may be a carrier of any infectious diease
If no acceptable vein can be found in the antecubital area of either arm, the phlebotomist should: check the dorsal side of the patient's wrist or hand
The name of the blood condition that patients may develop if they have a large amount of blood removed over time is_____ iatrogenic anemia
To dispose of the phlebotomy equipment after the procedure you: snap the safety device on the needle and dispose of the entire unit in the sharps container
The formation of a mass under the skin is a result of a ______. hematoma
A sudden increase in the ratio of blood components to plasma results from: hemoconcentration
A large bruise is also known as_______ hematoma
A hematoma may form if the tourniquet is ______ tied too tightly
Identifying a specimen accurately and making sure that it has not been altered or replaced is called establishing a: chain of custody.
Antecubtial Fossa Bend at elbow in arm
What veins do we draw from when drawing a patient's hand? Dorsal veins
Small red rash/dots from leaving the tourniquet on too long is called Petechia
Inflammation of a vein is called Phelbitis
If a patient has more than 20% of his/her blood drawn in one day it can cause _______ iactrogenic anemia
To feel for the vein is called______ palpation or to palpate
A swollen area is called ________ and should be avoided Edematous
Holding a vein in place is also know as _____ anchoring the vein
Hardening of a vein is referred to as _____ sclerosis of a vein
Another word for fainting is _______ syncope
When you would need to perform CPR on a patient? When the patient has no pulse
Bruising or skin discoloration is known as Echymosis
When would a phlebotomist use a multiple draw needle? Drawing multiple tubes
The additive in the red/gray speckled collection tube is? Thixotropic gel
A group of test requested is called a? Panel or profile
If a patient has an IV in the arm, the phlebotomist should? Draw from the opposite arm
What step should a phlebotomist take if blood was drawn from the wrong patient? Immediately report to supervisor
Blood in urine is called? Hematuria
The antiglycolytic agent that maintains glucose stability for 3 days is? Sodium Flouride
A patient is rushed to the ER because of dehydration due to severe vomiting. The ER physician orders a test for STAT electrolytes. What tube would the phlebotomist use to do the collection? Green
Collection devices used in skin punctures are? Capillary Tubes
What is the purpose of warming the site prior to a dermal puncture? Increase blood flow
The first step in stopping bleeding is to ? Apply pressure
What is the purpose of the Accession order? Correct Order of Draw
When cleaning the collection site, the phlebotomist should: Outward spiral movement
A "short draw" in blood collection refers to: Singel tube collection
When the body has had adequate rest and no food for at least 12 hours, it is said to be in: Basal State
What is the best sample for the determination of blood pH and blood gases? Arterial Blood
What is the most common complication from phlebotomy? Hematoma
Recent OSHA regulations requires that all health care personnel exposed to blood and other body fluids must receive a vaccination against? Hepatitis B
Red-top tubes are also called "plain" tubes. Blood collected in these tubes are allowed to clot by normal coagulation process, which will likely will take how many minutes? 15-30 minutes
The vacuum draw of the evacuated tube decreases with: Age
The boundaries for the approved area in performing heel punctures are: Medial line extending from great toe and lateral line extending from fourth and fifth toe.
What tube is used for PT and PTT? Light Blue
The proper way to dispose of a needle is to? Put in sharps without recapping
A patient has been taking aspirin for arthritis. Which of the following is most likely to be affected by it? Bleeding time
The most common cause of blood culture contamination is ? Improper cleaning of site
If a patient refuses a venipuncture procedure, what should the phlebotomist do? Report it to the nurse, your supervisor and document it on the requisition.
A symptom of shock? Expressionless face
An obese patient was sent to the lab for a CBC, which of the following veins is most likely to be the only one that the phlebotomist can palpate? Cephalic
Which of the following analytical errors occurs during blood collection? Wrong order of draw
The phlebotomist identifies a patient in the clinic laboratory facility by: Asking the patient to state their name and DOB
What is the correct action for ending a venipuncture? Remove the needle and apply pressure
Declining medical treatment is an example of what a patient can do under the: Patient's Bill of Rights
This can occur if the tourniquet is left on too long: Hemoconcentration
What should be used to chill a specimen as it is transported? Ice water or ice slurry
How many tubes are drawn for a three hour glucose tolerance test (GTT)? 5
Before a blood donation is made, the phlebotomist must always check the blood donor's: Hemoglobin
A hematoma can be prevented if: Pressure is places on site
A specimen for a blood lead level is drawn in a : Royal blue tube
If a patient has a syncopal episode during blood draw, which of the following should be phlebotomist do first: Remove the tourniquet then needle
An unconscious, unidentified man is admitted to an emergency trauma center. What would be the system of choice to ensure patient identification? Use temporary armband
Peak level and trough level are used in : Therapeutic drug monitoring
The following is correct about nosocomial infections: infections obtained in a health-care setting
The purpose of the tourniquet in the venipuncture procedure is: Enlarge veins
The most important means of preventing the spread of infection is: Handwashing
What criterion do you use to decide which needle gauge to use for venipuncture? Size and condition of vein
After the blood collection from a heel stick is placed on the neonatal screening card, the card must dry in a horizontal position for a minimum of 1 hour
Hormones are produced in which of the following body systems? Endocrine
This has been shown to erroneously affect lab tests results, leading to falsely elevated results: Violent crying
Adding too much blood to a sodium citrate tube can cause: Shorter clotting times
Contraction of the heart Systole
The Joint Commission is a(n) Accrediting Body
Nails can grow at a rate of: 0.1 mm/day
Diurnal rhythms are the same as: Circadian Rhythm
The occult blood analysis is frequently requested on: Feces
Process by which blood vessels are repaired after injury: Hemostasis
Function to provide the body protection against infection Leukocytes
Contains hemoglobin, the O2 carrying protein. Erythrocytes
Essential for blood coagulation Thrombocytes
Any object that can harbor infectious agents and/or transmit infection Fomite
All specimens should be handled with caution, as if they were contaminated with a blood born pathogen. Standard precautions
Tube containing anticoagulant. Whole Blood
When is skin puncture useful? Small amounts of blood
The most automated section in the laboratory : Blood Bank
This is the section where the formed element of the blood are studied by enumerating and classifying the red blood cells, whole blood cells, and platelets. Hematology
Contains anticoagulant SPS or sodium ployanetholuesulfanate Yellow top tube
Thixotropic gel (serum separator) forms a barrier between the serum and fibrin clot. Red/gray speckled top
Plain vacuum tube contains no additive or anticoagulant. No inversion required. Plain red top
Common tests: Serum chemistry tests, serology tests, and blood bank require this tube: Plain red top
Common tests: Fasting blood sugar (FBS), Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT), Blood Alcohol Levels (BAC), Lactic Acid measurements use this tube. Gray Top Tube
Contains anticoagulant Heparin combined with lithium, sodium, or ammonium. Green top tube
Inhibits thrombin in the coagulation cascade and is not used for Hematology because ti interferes with the Wright's Stain. Green Top Tube
Carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. Oxygenation takes place at the alveoli and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Pulmonary circulation
Carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle throughout the body Systemic circulation
Inhibits coagulation by binding to calcium present in the specimen and must be filled 2/3 full, inverted 8-10 times. Lavender.
Used for coagulation studies because it preserves the coagulation factors. Must be inverted 3-4 times. Light Blue top tube
Sclerosed veins, thrombic veins, and tortuous veins are examples of: unsuitable veins to use
Arteries, capillaries and veins are examples of blood vessels
Responsible for monitoring infectious disease. This includes health care worker exposure. CDC
This act defines low, moderate, and high complexity testing and requires labs to meet certain guidelines in order to perform their tests. CLIA 88
The national accrediting body for hospital, performs periodic inspection of healthcare facilities to ensure that they are meeting appropriate standards, JC
Regulates how health care information is transmitted and proved protection for certain types of health information HIPAA
Microorganisms that cause disease are: Pathogenic
This complication results from repeated venipuncture of the same vein: Plhebitis
Latex sensitivity is a type of: Allergy
What precaution would you take when drawing a Vitamin B6? Wrap in foil
What is the maximum % of blood a phlebotomist can draw before a patient experiences iatrogenic anemia? 20%
During a routine blood draw wha tis the first thing you do if someone begins to seizure and is on the floor? Clear Area
Which of the following complications can a phlebotomist cause by under filling a gray top tube? Hemolysis
Arteries Carry blood away from the heart, all arteries except pulmonary arteries, contain oxygenated blood
Veins Carry blood towards the heart. All veins, except pulmonary veins, carry deoxygenated blood
Caplillaries Smallest and most numerous blood vessels in the human body
Veins have ______ to keep blood from flowing backwards. Valves
Which veins do you choose first for anticubital venipuncture? 1) Median cubital 2) Cephalic 3) Basilic
Blood is comprised of formed elements (?) a liquid component (?). formed elements = 45% Liquid component = 55%
Formed elements include blood cells that originate mostly from the ______. Bone Marrow
The liquid component is made up of water (?) and solutes (?). Water= 90-92% Solutes = 8-10%
______ include electrolytes, enzymes, glucose, hormones, lipids, proteins, and metabolic substances. Soultes in blood
Red Blood Cells Made in Bone Marrow Bioconcave in shape Live ~120 days = 3-4 months 4.5-5.0 million/cm Carry Oxygen
_______ are primarily responsible for destroying foreign substances and pathogens and can pass through the thin walls of capillaries to enter the tissues through a process called Diapedesis. Leaukocytes = WBC
Diapedesis: process of WBCs traveling through the thin wall of capillaries into the bodies tissues.
There are _____ WBC/cmm in the circulating blood. 5,000-10,000
WBCs are categorized as : Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
Granulocytes: Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils
Agranulocytes: Monocytes Lymphocytes
Neutrophils Small dark granules Increase in bacterial infection
Eosinonphils Large red granules Increase in allergy and parasitic infection
Basophils Large dark granules Increase in extreme allergic reactions
Lymphocytes Contain no granules Increase in viral infections
Monocytes Largest of the circulating white blood cells increase in prolonged illnesses
Thrombocytes or platelets not whole cells, fragments of megakaryocytes
________ function in hemostasis by forming a platelet plug at the site of injury and secrete a substance to narrow blood vessels and assists in clot formation. Platelets
Four stages of blood vessel repair: 1)Vasoconstriction 2) Platelet plug formation 3) Blood clotting (coagulation) 4) Fibrinolysis = dissolving of the clot and return of the vessel to normal function
Hypoglycemia Lowered glucose - could be caused by serum sitting too long before being centrifuged.
Hyperkalemia Higher Potassium -could be caused by serum sitting too long before being centrifuged.
People who live in high altitudes have a higher _____ count and ____. Higher altitudes have lower levels of O2 in the air. RBC count and Hemoglobin.
Test in a CBC RBC, WBC, HGB, HCT, Platelet count
Sedimentation rate Measures the rate at which red cells fall when placed in a tube and allowed to stand for one hour.
When drawing a light blue top tube and using a butterfly needle, what special procedure must you do? When using a butterfly, first draw a discard tube (plain red) before drawing the blue top tube to insure the correct blood to additive ratio
During a glucose tolerance test, patients are NOT allowed to _____ until the entire procedure is complete. Leave the facility Eat or drink (water is acceptable) smoke consume alcohol chew gum
Accuracy How close
If you are trying to stop the bleeding from a needle stick, which of the following is the best technique? Apply direct pressure
Which of the following is a test used to monitor heparin levels? ACT or Activated Clotting Time
Which of the following is the deepest layer of the epidermis? Stratum basale
The area of a blood smear that is tested is called the _____. Feather
Which of the following matches the definition: excessive RBC production? Polycythemia
Which of the following is identified by the acronym (CPD)? Citrate Phosphate Dextrose
According to the Zone of Comfort, if you are standing 3 feet from a person you are within ____. Personal Distance
The "lubb" or first sound of the heartbeat is caused by: the closing of the AV valves
Major functions of this organ include glycogen storage, secretion of bile, and detoxification of harmful substances: Liver
A hydrogen breath test can be used to detect which of the following conditions? lactose intolerance
This blood bank test is used to check for unsuspected antibodies and antigens in the recipient's and donor's blood that could cause severe reactions during transfusion: Compatibility testing
What do veins have that arteries don't? Valves
What is the inside of an artery or a vein called? Lumen
What are capillaries? Microscopic, one cell-thick vessels that connect arterioles and venules
What is the purpose of a capillary? Capillaries are the site of gas exchange between blood & bodily tissues
What is the preferred locations for venipuncture? 1. Antecubital Fossa 2. Upper aspect of the forearm 3. Posterior aspect of the wrist 4. Dorsum (back) of the hand 5. Ankle and foot veins (Dorsalis Pedis)
What does the medical term "ante" mean? Before
What does the medical term "cubital" mean? Elbow
What are the three superficial veins located in the Antecubital Fossa? 1. Median Cubital Vein: Large and fixed 2. Cephalic Vein: Preferred in obese 3. Basilic Vein: Close to the brachial artery and median nerve
What is plasma composed of? 92% water, 7% proteins, the rest is all 1% (gases, minerals, carbs and lipids, waste products, vitamins, hormones and drugs)
What is the buffy coat composed of? Leukocytes and platelets
What is the percentage of plasma in the blood by volume? 55%
What is the percentage of formed elements? 45% (Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Platelets)
What purpose does hemoglobin have? Carries O2 on the RBC
What is the count of erythrocytes in a healthy adult? 4 - 6 million (approximately 2.4 million produced in a second) (Red blood cells make up approximately 99% of the cells of plasma)
What is the life span of a leukocyte? ~24 hours
There are two different types of white blood cells, what are they? Granular or Agranular leukocytes (Granular Leukocytes - perform phagocytosis) (Agranular Leukocytes - produce antibodies)
_________ Leukocytes are polymorphonuclear Examples of them are: Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils Their job is to perform Phagocytosis They usually react to inflammation Granular
Lymphocytes and monocytes are examples of Agranular Leukocytes They produce? antibodies Examples are: T cells and B cells
Which lymphocyte will be destroyed by HIV/AIDS? T cells
What are the differentials and their percentages? Neutrophils: 40% - 60% - Never Lymphocytes: 20% - 40% - Let Monocytes: 2% - 8% - Monkey Eosinophils: 1% - 4% - Eat Basophils: 0.5% - 1% - Bad Band: 0% - 3% - Bananas
What is the life span of a thrombocyte? 9-12 days
Number of thrombocytes per cubic millimeter? 150,000 - 400,000
Functions of additives are: 1. Preventing clotting/anticoagulant 2. Preserves certain blood components 3. Clot activator/promotes clotting
Yellow Top Tube sodium polyanetholsulfonate SPS or Acid Dextrose. it tests blood culture for aerobes and anaerobes/2 VIALS SPS aids in the recovery of microorganism by inhibiting the action of complement, phagocytosis and certain antibiotics AEROBE1st ANAEROBE 2nd
Light Blue Top Tube Additive: Sodium Citrate *** Fill completely Purpose: PT, Extrinsic pathway and Coumadin therapy and aPTT ( Activated partial thromboplastin time) RATIO: 9:1
Red Top Tube Additive: None Purpose: Serum separator tube
Green Top Tube Additive: Sodium, Lithium or Amonium Heparin Purpose: STAT electrolyte or ammonia
Lavender Top Tube Additive: EDTA Purpose: CBC, ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and sickle-cell screening *** Tube has to be filled at least two thirds
Gray Top Tube Additive: Antiglycolytic agent sodium fluoride Preserves glucose for 72 hours - lithium iodoacetate Preserves glucose for 24 hours - potassium oxalate / anticoagulant by binding with calcium
Dark royal blue tube top Additive: EDTA or sodium heparin Purpose: Test toxicology and trace elements, zinc and copper and lead
What does SESIP stand for? Sharps with Engineered Sharps Injury Protection
How many times should the light blue tube be inverted? 3-4 times
How many times does the red tube have to be inverted? 5 times (every other tube 8-10 times except light blue: 3-4)
What is the average number of how many times a tube has to be inverted? 4-10 times
True or false: a patient who is fasting can smoke as much as they please FALSE! SMOKING INCREASES GLUCOSE AND CORTISOL LEVELS!
What must you have in order to be able to take blood from a patient? Patients name Date of birth ID number Name of physician making the request Type of test requested Test status
In what scenario does a specimen need recollection? Unlabeled or mislabeled specimen Quantity not sufficient Defective tube Incorrect tube used for test ordered Hemolysis Clotted blood in an anticoagulated specimen Improper handling
What are some complication of venipuncture? syncope - fainting Hematoma - resolves over time Pain Infection Tissue trauma
What is a Guthries card? A filtered paper for capillary puncture (it is used for PKU test)
What kinds of tests have to be followed by chain of custody? Drug and alcohol testing, DNA analysis or parentage testing
What is hemophilia? Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder (missing factor VIII) Hereditary, sex-linked disorder
How many liters of blood circulate through a healthy body? 5 liters of blood circulate in our body every minute
What does ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) sometimes indicate? General indication of inflammation
Two major antigen systems are? ABO and Rh Person is either Rh positive or Rh negative
Blood compatibility: Type O - No antigens; anti-A and Anti-B antibodies; universal donors Type A - Type A antigen; anti-B antibodies; O and A donors Type B - Type B antigen; anti-A
What is Glycosylated Hemoglobin? Provides information about the average blood sugar level during the past 2 to 3 months Normal HbA1c levels between 4% and 6%; goal for diabetic patients are levels less than 7% taken in purple top tube
What is negligence? Failure to exercise the standard care that a reasonable person would give under similar circumstances
What is battery? touching patient without their consent
What if informed consent? Giving the patient information about the procedure
What is patient confidentiality? Means the patients right to authorize use of his/her own information
What is the age to be able to donate blood? 17-66 years old patient has to weigh atleast 110 pounds
What is an autologous donation? When a person donated blood for his/her own use. Minimum time between donation and surgery can be as little as 72 hours. To be eligible the patient must have order from physician.
CLSI guidelines set the max time limit for separating serum and plasma from the cells is _______. 2 hours
What is normal body temperature in Celsius? 36.4 - 37.6 Room temperature is usually 15-30 degree Celsius Refrigerated temperature 2-10 degree Celsius Frozen temperature -20 degree Celsius
Specimens to be protected from light are: Bilirubin Carotene Red Cell Folate Serum Folate Vitamin B2, B6, B12 and vitamin C Urine Porphyrins Urine Porphobilinogen
Chill specimen in crushed ice are: Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH Acetone Angio-tension-converting enzyme ACE Ammonia Catecholamins Free fatty acids Gastrin Homocystein Lactic acid Parathyroid hormone PH blood gas - ABG - Aterial blood gas Pyruvate Rening
3 categories for Urinaylsis Physical, Chemical, Microscopic
Physical properties reported for Urinalysis What we can see with the naked eye Color - yellow to amber Turbidity- clear to cloudy Oder - sweet smelling, very ammonia smelling, normal, etc.
Chemical properties reported for Urinalysis(10) Use a dip stick with reagents that cause a color change reaction 1)Blood 2)Proteins 3)Glucose 4)Bilirubin 5)Urobiligen 6)pH 7)Leukocytes 8)Nitrates 9)Ketones 10) Specific Gravity
Microscopic properties reported for Urinalysis Must be reported by trained professional (MT, MLT, pathologist, ...) Look at urine under microscope
Different means of collecting urine Random - most common First Morning - very 1st urination Clean Catch - specific way of cleaning genital - needed for UA and UC TImed - specific time or times throughout day 24 hour - collect all urine for 24 hours in collection jug.
When do you label urine cups? Before the patient voids in cup
True or False: Phlebotomy is considered an invasive procedure. True.
At all times, phlebotomist must demonstrate a mastery of the principles and techniques established by the _____. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
The phlebotomist is responsible for the collection, processing, and transport of blood specimens to the laboratory for testing. This responsibility consist of ___________. the Pre-examination phase of laboratory testing
What is POCT? Point of Care Testing - testing that can be performed at the patient's bedside. i.e. glucose monitoring
In 1988 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA '88) was established to ensure: (2) All laboratories receiving federal funds, regardless of size, type or location would meet the same standards and be certified by the government. It also standardized laboratories in quality control testing
__________ is a body that accredits and regulates. The Joint Commission (TJC or JC)
_______ that have become resistant to antibiotics include Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycim-resistant enterococci (WRE), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and clostridium difficile (C-diff). Microorganisms
The ______ has created the respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette standard, to which everyone is expected to adhere. Individuals should cover their cough or sneeze, use the flu salute, and clean their hands frequently. CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
4 common vehicles of transmission of infection: 1)droplet transmission 2)airborne transmission 3) vehicle-borne transmission 4) vector-borne transmission
Properly using ____________ will reduce the risk of infection to healthcare workers and patients. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
The cardiovascular system is responsible for ______. The heart, blood vessels, and blood that flows through these structures make up this system. circulation
The heart is a large muscle that works to pump blood through the _____ and is divided into 4 chambers. 2 atria and 2 ventricles Vascular system
Layers of the heart muscle include ________, _________, and _________. endocardium, myocardium, epicardium
The sac that holds the heart is the perietal pericardium
____________ provides the blood supply to the heart. Oxygenated blood travels from the left ventricle, through the aorta and directly into the coronary artiers Coronary circulation
___________ occurs when the blood that has been used by the body's cells is returned to the heart and transported to the lungs to pick up oxygen. Pulmonary Circulation
____________ is responsible for delivering nutrient-rich, oxygenated blood to all other parts of the body and bringing back the blood to the heart. Systemic Circulation
_______ carry oxygen-rich blood through capillaries, where gas exchange occurs. _______ carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Arteries, veins
Arteries and veins consist of three layers:_____, ________, _________ Tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia
Red blood cells contain many ____ (proteins) on their surface. Antigens
The most common blood group systems are the ____ blood group and the ___blood group. ABO and Rh
Which organization requires patient's name, DOB, identification #, specimen collection date/time and phlebotomist initials. CLSI = Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute
What type of needles are used with syringes? Hypodermic Needles
_______ errors can occur during patient identification, specimen collection and specimen handling. Pre-examination
Specimen collection and handling are _______ variables that only those collecting and transporting the specimen can control. pre-examination
Created by: Ckey290



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