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EHS 2009 JB

Review of all the terms in the Rubenstein school book.

QuestionAnswerChapter Page number
Basic Industries Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement. 12 p425
Business Services Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses. 12 p406
Central Place A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area. 12 p412
Central Place Theory A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlement serve as centers of market areas for services; 12 p412
Central Business District (CBD) The area of where retail and office activities are clustered. 12 p427
City-State A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland. 8 and 12 p267 and p419
Clustered Rural Settlement A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement. 12 p409
Consumer Services Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services. 12 p405
Dispersed Rural Settlement A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages. 12 p409
Economic Base A community's collection of basic industries. 12 p425
Enclosure Movement The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in england during the eighteenth century. 12 p412
Gravity Model A Model that holds that potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service. 12 p416
Market area (or Hinterland) The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services. 12 p412
Nonbasic Industries Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers int the community. 12 p406
Personal Services Services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers. 12 p406
Primate City The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. 12 p418
Primate City Rule A pattern of settlements In a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. 12 p418
Producer Services Services that primarily help people conduct business. 12 p406
Public Services Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses. 12 p406
Range (of a Service) The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service. 12 p413
Other characteristics of Central place Larger settlements are fewer and farther apart then smaller settlements and provide services for larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
Acid Deposition Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides,emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid-and retrun to Earth's surface. 14 p491
Acid precipitation Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog. 14 p491
Active solar energy systems Solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors. 14 p498
Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations. 10 p338
Agriculture density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture. 2 p52
Agricultural revolution The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering. 2 p59
Agriculture The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain. 10 p333
Air pollution Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particules, at greater level than occurs in average air. 14 p490
Animate power Power supplied by people or animals. 14 p475
Animism Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life. 6 p194
Annexation Legally adding land area to a city in the United States. 13 p458
Apartheid Laws in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas. 7 P235
Arithmetic Density The total number of people divided by the total land area. 2 p51
Autonomous religion A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperate informally. 6 p212
Balance of power Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries. 8 p282
Balkanization Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities. 7 P255
Balkanized A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into ne or more stable states because it was inhabited by may ethnicities with complex, Long-standing antagonisms toward each other. 7 P255
Base Line An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States. 1 p12
Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD) Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution. 14 p496
Biodiversity The number of species within a specific habitat. 14 p504
Biomass Fuel Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste. 14 p475
Blockbusting A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood. 7 P235
Settlement A permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants. 12 p405
boundary Invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory. 8 p270
Threshold The minimum number of people needed to support the service. 12 p413
Brain Drain Large-scale emigration by talented people. 3 p99
Transportation and Information services Services that diffuse and distribute services. 12 p406
Branch(of a religion) A large and fundamental division within a religion. 6 p187
Break-of-bulk point A location where transfer is possible from one form of transportation to another. 11 P387
Breeder reactor A nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium. 14 p485
British Received Pronunciation (BRP) The dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom. 5 P152
Bulk-gaining industry An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs. 11 P383
Bulk-reducing industry An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs. 11 P381
Cartography The science of making maps. 1 p6
Caste The class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law. 6 P213
Census tract An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods. 13 p446
Census A complete enumeration of the population. 2 p65
Centripetal Force A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted form the surrounding area. 7 P239
Cereal Grain A grass yielding grain for food. 10 p347
Chaff Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing. 10 345
Chain Migration Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there. 3 p98
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers. 14 p491
Circulation Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis. 3 p85
Colonialism Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory. 8 p268
Colony A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent. 8 p267
Combine A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field. 10 p350
Commercial agriculture Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm. 10 p335
Compact state A state in which the distance form the center to any boundary does not vary significantly. 8 p271
Concentration The spread of something over a given area. 1 p34
Concentric zone model A model of the internal structure of of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings. 13 p445
Connections Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space. 1 p5
Conservation The sustainable use and management of a natural resource, through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced. 14 p503
Contagious Diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population. 1 p40
Cosmogony A set of religions beliefs concerning the origin of the universe. 6 P204
Cottage industry Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution. 11 P371
Council of Government A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the U.S. 13 p467
Counterurbanization Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries. 3 p109
Creole or Creolized language A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated. 5 P162
Crop rotation The practice of rotating use of different fields from crops to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil. 10 p346
Crop Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season. 10 p333
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) The total number of of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. 2 p53
crude death Rate The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. 2 p53
Cultural ecology Geographers approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships. 1 p25
Cultural landscape Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group. 1 p20
Culture The body of customary beliefs, social force, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition. 1 p24
Custom The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act. 4 P117
Demographic transition The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase rate to a condition of low rude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population. 2 p58
Demography The scientific study of population characteristics. 2 P47
Denomination A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body. 6 P187
Density The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area. 1 p34
Density gradient The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery. 13 p460
Dependency ratio The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force. 2 p62
Desertification Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. 10 p359
Development A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology. 9 p299
Dialect A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation. 5 p152
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend form one place to another over time. 1 p38
Diocese The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church. 6 P211
Distance decay The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance form its origin. 1 p37
Distribution The arrangement of something across Earth's surface. 1 p34
Double Cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same field. 10 p345
Doubling time The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. 2 p54
Ebonics Dialect spoken by some African-Americans 5 p176
Ecumene The portion of the Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. 2 p50
Elongated state A state with a long, narrow shape. 8 p272
Emigration Migration form a location. 3 p85
Edge City A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area. 13 p460
Environmental Determinism A nineteenth-and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general law sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. 1 p25
Epidemiological transition Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition. 2 p72
Epidemiology Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people. 2 p72
Ethnic cleansing Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region. 7 P250
Ethnic Religion A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated. 6 P212
Ethnicity Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions. 7 P227
Expansion Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend among people form one area to another in a snowballing process. 1 `p38
Extinct Language A language that was once used by people in daily activities but no longer used. 5 p171
Federal state An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government. 8 p278
Ferrous Metals, including iron ore, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel. 14 p487
Filtering A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment. 13 p455
Fission The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy. 14 p483
Floodplain The area subject to folding during a given number of years according to historical trends. 3 p87
Folk culture Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups. 4 P117
Forced migration Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors. 3 p88
Fordist production Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to preform repeatedly. 11 P392
Formal Region Formal region an area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics. 1 p20
Fossil fuel Energy source formed form the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago. 14 p476
Fragmented state A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory. 8 p273
Franglais A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of Francaise and Anglais, the French words for "French" and "English" respectively. 5 p177
Frontier A zone separating two states in which neither state exercise political control. 8 p275
Functional region An area organized around a node or focal point. 1 p22
Fundamentalism Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion. 6 P212
Fusion Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to from helium. 14 p499
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) Compares the ability of woman and men to participate in economic and political decision making. 9 p315
Gender-related Development Index (GDI) Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes. 9 p315
Gentrification A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-ocupied area. 13 p456
Geothermal energy Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks. 14 p499
Gerrymandering Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power. 8 p280
Ghetto During the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to donate a section of a city in which members of an minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure. 6 201
GIS A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data. 1 p14
Globalization Actions or process that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope. 1 p31
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers. 1 p14
Grain Seed of a cereal grass. 10 p350
Green revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers. 10 p360
Greenbelt A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area. 13 p461
Greenhouse effect Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide, trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface. 14 p490
Greenwich mean time The time in that zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0 degrease longitude. 1 p19
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period. 9 p300
Guest Workers Workers who migrated to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe,usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher paying jobs. 3 p99
Habit A repetitive act performed by a particular individual. 4 P117
Hearth The region from which innovative ideas originate. 1 p38
Hierarchical Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places. 1 p39
Hierarchical Religion A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control. 6 P211
Horticulture The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. 10 p354
Hull The outer covering of a seed. 10 p345
Human Development Index (HDI) Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by the United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy. 9 p299
Hydroelectric power Power generated from moving water. 14 p499
Ideograms The system of writing used in China and other East Asia countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English. 5 p168
Immigration Migration to a new location. 3 p85
Imperialism Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society. 8 p268
Inanimate power Power supplied by machines. 14 p475
Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. 2 and 11 p59 and p371
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society. 2 p55
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land. 10 p345
Internal migration Permanent movement within a particular country. 3 p88
International Date Line An arc that for the most part follows 180 degrease longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. 1 P20
International Migration Permanent movement from one country to another. 3 p88
Interregional Migration Permanent movement from one region of a country to another. 3 p88
Intervening Obstacle An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration. 3 P88
Intraregional migration Permanent movement within one region of a country. 3 P88
Isoglass A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate. 5 p155
Isolated language A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to and language family. 5 p175
Labor-intensive industry An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses. 11 p388
Landlocked state A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea. 8 p274
Land ordinance of 1785 A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers. 1 P12
Language A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning. 5 p149
Language Branch A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. 5 p156
Language Family A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history. 5 p156
Language Group A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammer and vocabulary. 5 p157
Latitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator. 1 P18
Less Developed country (LDC) Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in process of economic development. 9 p299
Life Expectancy The average number of years an individual can be expected to live. 2 p57
Lingua Franca A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages. 5 p176
Literacy rate The percentage of a country's people who can read and write. 9 p303
Literary tradition A language that is written as well as spoken. 5 p149
Location The position of anything on Earth's surface. 1 P15
Longitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime maridian. 1 P18
Map A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it. 1 P5
Maquiladora Factories built by U.S. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico. 11 p370
Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. 2 p60
Mental Map An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located. 1 P22
Meridian An arc drawn on a map between the North and South Poles. 1 P18
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) In the U.S., a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city. 13 p442
Micropolitan Statistical area An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city. 13 p443
Microstate A state that encompasses a very small area. 8 p266
Migration Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location. 3 P85
Migration transition Change in the migration pattern in a society that results form industrilzation, poupulatoin growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition. 3 P89
Milkshed The are surrounding a city from which milk is supplied. 10 p349
Missionary An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion. 6 P197
Mobility All types of movement form one location to another. 3 P89
Monotheism The doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god. 6 P194
More Developed Country Also known as a relatively developed country or a developed country or a developed country, a country that has progressed relatively far along a contnuum of development. 9 p299
Multi-ethnic state State that contains more than one ethnicity. 7 P239
Multinational State State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities. 7 P239
Multiple nucei model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities. 13 p446
Nationalism Loyalty and devotion to a paticular nationality. 7 P238
Nationality Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal alleginace to a particular plcae as a result of being born there. 7 P237
Nation-state A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality. 7 P237
Natural increase rate (NIR) The percentage groth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate. 2 P53
Net Migration The ddifference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration. 3 p85
New international division of labor Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries. 11 p398
Nonferrous Metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel. 14 p487
Nonrenewable energy A source of energy that is a finite supply capable o being exhausted. 14 p476
Official Language The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of buisness and publication of documents. 5 p149
Overpopulation The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the encironment to support life at a decent standard of living. 2 p47
Ozone A gas that absorbs ultaviolet solar radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 kilograms (9 to 30 miles) above the earth's surface. 14 p491
Paddy Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah. 10 p345
Pagan A follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times. 6 P197
Pandemic Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very hich proportion of population. 2 p72
Parallel A circle drawn around the globe parallel to equator and at right angles to the meridians. 1 P18
Pasive solar energy systems Solar energy system that collects energy without the use of mechanical decivices. 14 p498
Pastrol Nomadism A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals. 10 p343
Pasture Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing. 10 p344
Pattern The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area. 1 P35
Perforated state A state that completely surrounds another one. 8 p274
Peripheral Model A model of North America urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road. 13 p459
Photochemical Smog An atmospheric conditoin formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions. 14 p493
Photovolatic cell Solar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to gererate electricity. 14 p498
Physiological density The number of people per unit of area or arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. 1 and 2 P34 p52
Pidgin language A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages. 5 p176
Pilgrimage A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes. 6 p201
Place A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character. 1 P5
Plantation A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country. 10 p355
Polder Land created by the Dutch By draining water from an area. 1 P28
Pollution Addition of more waste tan a resource can accommodate. 14 p489
Polytheism Belief in or worship of more than one god. 6 p194
Popular culture Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics. 4 p117
Population Pyrimid A bar graph representing the distirbution of population by age and sex. 2 p62
Possibilism The theory that the physical encironment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives. 1 P26
Post-fordist production Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks. 11 p392
Potential reserve The amount of energy in deposits not yet identified byt thought to exist. 14 p477
Preservation Maintenance of a resource in its present condition, with little human impact as possible. 14 p503
Primary Sector The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extration of materials form earth's surface, generally through agriculture although sometimes by mining, and fishing, and forestry. 9 p300
Prime Agricultrual land The most produtive farmland. 10 p338
Prime Maridian The meridian, designated as 0 degrees longitude, which passes through the Royal Obserbvation at Greenwich, England. 1 P18
Principal Maridian A norh-south line desiganted in the Land ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the U.S. 1 P12
Productivity The value of a particualr product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it. 9 p302
Projection The system used to transfer locations form Earth's surface to a flat map. 1 P12
Prorupted State An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension. 8 p271
Proven reserve The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits. 14 p476
Public Housing Housing owned by the government, in the U.S. it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set 30 percent of the families' income. 13 p445
Pull factors Factors that induce people to move to a new location. 3 P85
Push factors Factors that induce people to leave old resiences. 3 P85
Quota In reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year. 3 P99
Race Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor. 7 p237
Racism Belief that the race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race. 7 p233
Racist A person who subsrcibes to the beliefs of racism. 7 p233
Radioactive waste Particals from a nuclear reaction that emit radiatioin; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people and must therefore by safely stored for thousands of years. 14 p483
Ranching A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area. 10 p351
Rank-size rule A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largst settlement is 1.n the population of the largest settlement. 12 p416
Reaper A machine that cuts grain standing in the field. 10 p350
Recycling The separation, collection, processing, marketing and reuse of unwanted material. 14 p500
Redlining A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries. 13 p455
Refugees People who are forced to migrate from their hime country and connot return for fear of persucution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion. 3 P86
Region An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features. 1 P5
Regional studies An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationship among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area. 1 P20
Relocation diffusion The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from on place to another. 1 P38
Remote sensing The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other ong distance. 1 P14
Renewable energy A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans. 14 p476
Resource A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use. 1 and 14 p26 and 475
Retail services Services that provide goods for sale to consumers. 12 p405
Ridge tillage System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation. 10 p357
Right-to-work state A U.S. state has passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment. 11 p377
Rush Hour The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic. 13 p463
Sanitary landfill A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and discourage vermin. 14 p497
Sawah A flooded field for growing rice. 10 p345
Scale Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface. 1 P10
Secondary sector The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials. 9 p300
Sect A relatively small group that has broken away from an establised denmination. 6 p187
Section A square normally 1 mile on a side. The land Ordinance of 1785 divided twonships in the U.S. into 36 sections. 1 p12
Sector Model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district. 13 p446
Seed Agriculture Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which results from sexual fertiliztation. 10 p334
Self-determination Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves. 7 p237
Service Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it. 12 p405
Sex Ratio The number of males per 100 females in the population. 2 p62
Sharecropper A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays ther rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops. 7 p231
Shifiting cultivation A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activily from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period. 10 p339
Site The physical character of a place. 1 p16
Site factors Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital. 11 p381
Situation The location of a place relative to other places. 1 p16
Situation factors Location factors related to the transportaion of materials into and from a factory. 11 p381
Slash-and-burn agricultrue Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris. 10 p339
Solstice Time when the sun is farthes from the equator. 6 p206
Sovereignty Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states. 8 p263
space The physical gap or interval between two objects. 1 p5
Space-time comperssion The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems. 1 p36
Spanglish Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hidpanic-Americans. 5 p179
Sprawl Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area. 13 p460
Spring Wheat Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer. 10 p350
Squatter settlement An area within the city in a less developed country in which people are illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures. 13 p454
Standard Language The form of a language used for official gorvernment business, education, and mass communications. 5 p152
State An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs. 8 p263
Stimulus Diffusion The spread o fan underlying principle even though a specific characteristic is rejected. 1 p40
Structural adjustment program Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencecies to create conditions encouraging internantional trade. 9 p325
Subsistence agriculture Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumtion by the farmer and the farmer's family. 10 p335
Sustainable agriculture Farming methods that preserve long term prductivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides. 10 p357
Sustainable Development The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future gererations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development. 14 p503
Swidden A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning. 10 p341
Taboo A retriction on behavior imposed by social customs. 4 P125
Tertiary sector The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment. 9 p301
Textile A fabric made by weaving used in making clothing. 11 373
Thresh To beat out grain from stalks by trampling it. 10 P345
Toponym The name given to a portion of Earth's surface. 1 p15
Total Fertitity Rate (TFR) The average number of childern a women will have throughout her childbearing years. 2 p55
Township A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the U.S. into a series of townships. 1 p12
Trading Bloc A group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs. 11 p396
Transhumance The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures. 10 P344
Transnational corporation A company that conducts research, operates factroies, and sell products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholder are located. 1 p31
Triangular slave trade A parctice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa. 7 p230
Truck farming Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities. 10 P355
Underclass A group in society pervented from participating in the material benifits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and econmic characteristics. 13 p456
Undocumented immigrants People who enter a country without proper documents. 3 P96
Uneven Development The increasing gap in economic conditions between core peripheral regions as a result of the globaliztion of the economy. 1 p40
Unitary State An internal organization of a state that places most of the power in the hands of the central government. 8 p278
Universalizing religion A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular area. 6 P187
Urban Renewal Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and buinesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers. 13 p455
Urbanization An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements. 13 p439
Urbanized area In the U.S., a central city plus its contigous built-up suburbs. 13 p441
Value Added The gross value of the product minus the cost of raw materials and energy. 9 p302
Vegetative planting Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants. 10 P334
Vernacular region An area that people believe to exist as part of thier cultural identity. 1 p22
Voluntary migration Permanent movement undertaken by choice. 3 P88
Vulgar Latin A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for offical documents. 5 p161
Wet Rice Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth. 10 P345
Winnow To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind. 10 P345
Winter Weat Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer. 10 P350
Zero Population growth (ZPG) A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero. 2 p60
Zoning ordinance A law that limits the permidded uses of land and maximum density of development in a community. 13 p462
Smart growth Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland. 13 p467
Created by: edison student