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patho chap 2 terms

acid ...a substance that releases hydrogen ions
amino acid ...monomers composed in protein
anion ...a negatively charged ion
aqueous ...pertaining to water; a substance in which water is the solvent
atom smallest subunits of elements
base ...a substance that releases hydroxide ions and accepts hydrogen ions
buffer ...chemicals that prevent sharp changes in H+ concentration
carbohydrate ...simple sugars
catalyst ...substance that speeds the rate of a chemical reaction
cation ...an ion that is positively charged
chemistry the science that deals with the composition and properties of matter
colloid ... heterogeneous mixture in which suspended particles do not dissolve but remain evenly distributed based on the small size
compound ...substance composed of two or more chemical elements
denaturation ...changes in structure of a protein so that it can no longer function
electrolyte ...compounds that separate into ions in solution
electron negatively charged particle, orbit in energy levels around the nucleus and determines atom's chemical reactivity
element ...one of the substance from which all matter is made
enzyme ...proteins that speed up (catalyze) chemical reactions
glucose ...a simple sugar
glycogen ...a storage form of glucose that is found in liver and muscle cells
ion ...an atom or molecule with an electrical charge
isotope ...forms an element that have the same atomic number but different atomic weight
lipid ...fats- type of organic compound that is not soluble in water
molecule ...chemicals composed of two or more atoms held together with covalent bonds
nucleotide ...composed of a nitrogen base, a sugar, a phosphate group. Building blocks of DNA and RNA. One type is a component ATP
neutron noncharged particle in the nucleus of an atom
pH ...measures the relative concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in solutions
protein ...organic compound made of amino acids; contains nitrogen in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (some contain sulfur or phosphorus)
proton positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
radioactive ...emission of atomic particles from an isotope
salt ...a substance formed by a reaction between an acid and a base
solute ...substance that is dissolved into another substance
solution ...homogeneous mixture formed when one substance (solute) dissolves into another(solvent)
solvent ...substance in which another substance is dissolved
steroid ...lipids that contain rings of carbon atoms
substrate ...substance on which an enzyme works
suspension ...heterogeneous mixture that will separate unless shaken
valence ...the number of bonds an atom needs to fill its outermost energy level
Created by: disney2000