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Herzing anatomy

Herzing anatomy

Anatomy Studies the shape and structure of an organism's body and the relationship of one body part to another.
Biology The study of all forms of life.
Physiology Studies the function of each body part and how the functions of the various body parts coordinate to form a complete living organism.
Disease Any abnormal change in a structure or function that produces symptoms.
Gross anatomy The study of large and easily observable structures on an organism
Microscopic anatomy The use of microscopes to enable one to see the minute details of organ parts. Divided into 2 branches- Cytology and Histology
Cytology The study of the structure, function and development of cells that comprise the different body parts.
Histology Studies the tissues and organs that make up the entire body of an organism.
Developmental anatomy Studies the growth and development of an organism during its lifetime.
Embryology Studies the formation of an organism from fertilized egg to birth.
Comparative anatomy The study of human and other animals body parts in regard to similarities and differences from in the animal kingdom.
Systematic anatomy The study of the structure of various organs or parts that comprise a particular organ system.
Dermatology Study of integumentary system (skin, hair and nails)
Endocrinology Study of the endocrine or hormonal system.
Neurology Study of the nervous system.
Anterior or Ventral Front or in front of- examples- the knees are located on the anterior surface of the human body. The ventral hernia may protrude from the front or belly of the abdomen.
Cephalic Refers to direction- example-means "skull" or "head end" of the body.
Caudal Refers to direction- example- Means "tail end." Caudal anesthesia is injected in the lower spine.
Superior "Upper" or above another. Example- the heart and lungs are situated superior to the diaphragm.
Inferior "Lower" or below another. Example- The intestines are inferior to the diaphragm.
Medial Toward the midline or median plane of the body. Example- the nose is medial to the eyes.
Lateral Away or toward the side of the body. Example- the ears are lateral to the nose.
Proximal Toward the point of attachment to the body or toward the trunk of the body. Example- The wrist is proximal to the hand. Used primarily to describe the appendages or extremities.
Posterior or dorsal "Back or in back of." Example- Human shoulder blades are found on the posterior surface of the body.
Distal "Away from the point of attachment or origin" or "farthest from the trunk." Example-The elbow is distal to the shoulder. Used primarily to describe the appendages or extremities.
Superficial "On or near the surface of the body." Example-A superficial wound involves and injury to the outer skin.
Deep injury Refers to a deep injury involves damage to an internal organ such as the stomach.
Internal and External Specifically used to refer to body cavities and hollow organs.
Sagittal plane Divides the body into left and right parts.
Midsaggittal plane Starts in the middle of the skull and proceeded down, bisecting the sternum and the vertebral column, the body would be divided equally into right and left halves.
Coronal (frontal) plane A vertical cut at right angles to the sagittal plane, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions.
Transverse plane A horizontal cut that divides the body into upper and lower portions.
Abdominopelvic cavity One large cavity with no separation between the abdomen and pelvis.
Abdominal cavity Contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, small intestine, appendix and part of the large intestine.
Pelvic cavity The urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum and remainder of the large intestine.
Umbilical Located around the navel.
Tissue Special cells- grouped according to function, shape, size and structure.
Organ system Organs function interdependently with one another to form a live, functioning organism. Some are grouped together because more than one is needed to perform a function.
Dorsal cavity Contains the brain and spinal cord
Cranial cavity The brain
Spinal cavity Spinal cord
Thoracic cavity Between the lungs and extends from the sternum (breastbone) to the vertebrae of the back. Contains the esophagus, bronchi, lungs, trachea, thymus gland, and heart.
Hypogastric Referred to the pubic area.
Orbital cavity The eyes, eyeball muscles, optic nerves, and lacrimal (tear) ducts.
Nasal cavity Parts that form the nose.
Oral cavity or Buccal cavity The teeth and tongue.
Acid Chemical compound that ionizes to form hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution.
Amino acid Small molecular units that make up protein molecules.
Base Chemical compound yielding hydroxyl ions (OH-) in an aqueous solution, which will react with acid to form a salt and water.
Buffer A compound that maintains the chemical balance in a living organism.
Carbohydrate An organic compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen as sugar or starch.
Cholesterol A steroid normally synthesized in the liver and also ingested in egg yolks, animal fats and tissues.
Compound Elements combined in definite proportion by weight to form a new substance.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A nucleic acid containing the elements of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus; genetic material.
Electrolyte Electrically charged particles that help determine fluid and acid-base balance.
Element Made up of like atoms; substance that can neither be created nor destroyed.
Electron A subatomic particle of an atom that is arranged around the nucleus in orbital zones or electron shells. An electron has a negative (-) charge.
Enzyme Organic catalysts that initiate and accelerate a chemical reaction.
Ion An electrically charged atom.
Isotope Atoms of a specific element that have the same number of protons by a different number of neutrons.
Matter Anything that has weight and occupies space.
Molecule The smallest unit of a compound that still has the properties of the compound.
Neutron A subatomic particle of an atom that, with a proton, makes up the nucleus of the atom; a neutron has no electric charge.
Organic compound Found in living things and the products they make. They contain the element carbon, combined with hydrogen and other elements.
pH scale Measures the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
Protein An organic compound containing the elements of carbon; hydrogen; oxygen; nitrogen; and most times, phosphorus and sulfur. Protein is necessary to build and repair body tissue.
Proton A subatomic particle of an atom; with neutrons it makes up the nucleus of the atom. The proton has a positive (+) charge.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Type of nucleic acid. Contains ribose sugar.
Salt Compound formed when a negative ion of acid combines with a positive ion of a base.
Steroid Lipids or fats that contain cholesterol.
Active transport Process by which solute molecules are transported across a membrane against a concentration gradient, from an area of low concentration to one of high concentration.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Chemical compound consisting of one molecule of adenine, one of ribose, and three of phosphoric acid. This is the high-energy fuel a cell requires to function.
Atrophy Wasting away of tissue.
Benign Nonmalignant (non cancerous).
Cancer The presence of a malignant tumor, which may affect all body parts.
Cell membrane Structure that encloses the cell; also known as plasma membrane.
Chromosome Nuclear material that determines hereditary characteristics.
Cytoplasm Protoplasm of the cell body, excluding the nucleus.
Diffusion Molecules move from higher concentration to lower concentration
Endoplasmic reticulum Transport system of a cell; can be smooth or rough.
Filtration Movement of water and particles across a semipermeable membrane by a mechanical force such as blood pressure.
Golgi apparatus A membranous network that resembles a stack of pancakes; it stores and packages secretions to be secreted by the cell.
Hypertonic solution A solution in which water molecules are moving out of a cell, causing it to shrink.
Hypotonic solution A solution in which water molecules are moving into a cell, causing it to swell.
Interphase The resting phase in the process of mitosis.
Isotonic solution A solution in which movement of water molecules into and out of a cell is the same.
Lysosome Cytoplasmic organelle containing digestive enzymes.
Meiosis Cell division of gametes or cells; reduces the number of chromosomes.
Metaphase Phase 3 in the process of mitosis; nuclear membrane disappears.
Mitochondria Organelle that supplies energy to the cell.
Mitosis Cell division involving two distinct processes: (1) Mitosis, the exact duplication of the nucleus to form two identical nuclei; and (2) cytoplasmic division. After nuclear division, to cytoplasm is divided into two approximately equal parts.
Nuclear membrane Double-layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
Nucleolus Small spherical structure within the cell nucleus.
Nucleus Core or center of a cell containing large quantities of DNA; also
Organelle Microscopic structure within the cell having a special function or capacity.
Osmosis Passage of fluid through a membrane
Passive transport The process of moving materials across a cell membrane without using energy, such as diffusion, osmosis, or filtration.
Phagocytosis Ingestion of foreign or other particles by certain cells.
Pinocytosis Process of engulfing large molecules in solution and taking them into the cell.
Prophase Phase 2 in the process of mitosis.
Replication Occurs when a exact copy of each nuclear chromosome is made during the early part of the first stage of mitosis (early interphase)
Ribosome Submicroscopic particle attached to endoplasmic reticulum; site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm of a cell.
Solute Dissolved substance in a solution.
Telophase The final stage in the mitosis process. Chromosomes migrate to the opposite poles of the cell. Uncoil to become loosely arranged chromatin granules.
Adipose tissue Stores lipid (fat), acts as filler tissue, and cushions, supports, and insulates the body. Loose connective tissue composed of saclike adipose cells.
Aponeurosis Connective tissue- they are flat, wide bands of tissue that hold on muscle to another or to the periosteum (bone covering).
Areolar tissue
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