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MWH Unit 2 Vocab

Summerville High School MWH HONORS Renaissance Reformation

TermDefinition
Medici Family leading family of the Italian Renaissance, made their money off of banking, members included Popes, Cardinals and the Queen of France (by marriage)
Francesco Petrarch father of the Humanism, most noted for writing poetry in the vernacular
Giovanni Boccaccio Italian Renaissance writer of the Decameron, a book about people during the Black Plague
Niccolo Machiavelli Italian Renaissance writer of The Prince, a book on how to become a powerful ruler
Martin Luther Credited with starting the Protestant Reformation, he was a German Catholic theologian, author of the 95 Theses and founder of the Lutheran Church
Ulrich Zwingli Swiss Protestant Reformer who focused on the supremacy of the Bible over the Pope
John Calvin French Protestant that led the Reformation movement in Switzerland – started the Calvinist church based on a much stricter interpretation of the Bible. Main concept of predestination
John Knox Founder of the Presbyterian Church in Scotland, heavily influenced by Calvinism
Henry VIII (Tudor) Founder of the Anglican Church aka the Church of England, separated from the Catholic Church after he was denied a divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon.
Edward VI (Tudor) third child of Henry VIII, but first heir to the throne upon Henry VIII’s death. Continued the Anglican Church created by his father
Mary I (Tudor) oldest child of Henry VIII, mother was Catherine of Aragon, became queen upon Edward VI’s death, Tried to bring back Catholicism, earned the name Bloody Mary
Elizabeth I (Tudor) second child of Henry VIII, mother was Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth I solidified the rule of the Anglican Church, but faced resistance from Puritans who wanted a more streamlined church
Absolutism also called an absolute monarchy, system of government where the king has power with no limitations (Louis XIV for example)
Politique ruler who values politics or power over all else (Henry IV of France valued power over religion)
Coalition alliance of countries for a specific purpose (England, Austria and Prussia against France)
Fortified city that is walled and defended with weapons. (Castles)
Iconoclasm the practice of destroying icons (Ex: Huguenots destroyed statues and paintings in Catholic Churches)
Peace of Augsburg allowed German princes to choose between Lutheran and Catholic religions
Edict of Nantes issued by Henry IV, allowed Huguenots to practice their religion and have fortified cities
Peace of Westphalia end of the Thirty Years War, first modern state treaty made between countries, not kings
Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Aug 24, 1572 20,000 Huguenots killed on order of the King of France
Thirty Years War 1618 - 1648, war over religion, territory and politics in the HRE
War of Spanish Succession (1701 to 1714) war to prevent the union of the Spanish and French thrones (Louis XIV vs European alliance)
War of Austrian Succession 1740 Frederick the Great of Prussia attacked Austrian territory when Maria Theresa took the throne
Seven Years War (1756 to 1763)war in Europe, Austria/France vs Britain/Prussia, aka French and Indian War for fighting in Americas
Huguenots French Protestants, mostly wealthy people
Bourbons ruling family of France; started with Henry IV
Henry IV aka Henry of Navarre; first Bourbon king of France, issued Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV Bourbon absolute monarch of France, War of Spanish Succession; wars and policies led to high taxes
Emperor Ferdinand Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor at the start of the Thirty Years War
Maria Theresa Hapsburg leader of Austria, War of Austrian Succession, Seven Years War
Frederick the Great Kaiser (king) of Prussia, Ware of Austrian Succession and Seven Years War
Individualism focus on personal achievements and needs
95 theses written by Martin Luther, list of problems with the church
Secularism focus on worldly or non-religious things
Autonomy self rule
Reformist person looking to change part of society
Simony sale of church offices
Italian Renaissance focused on art and literature, more individual
Northern Renaissance focused on realism and reform
Nationalism people wanting a country of their own
Theologians religious scholars
Imperial Diet HRE government hearing – like a government trial
Renaissance rebirth
Humanism belief in human potential
Oligarchies governments run by a small group of powerful people (families)
Patrons people who support a business or artists
Vernacular in the common or local language
Christian Humanism Northern European concept that humans can understand the Bible by reading it on their own, and who wanted to reform Christian practices
Suppress put down, or push back
Indulgences sale of forgiveness for sins
recant take back a statement
Created by: amygilstrap7