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Late Middle Ages / Renaissance

Renaissance core features Classical knowledge, humanism, individualism, secularism
Classical Knowledge Antiquity - focused on Greeks / Romans
Humanism Be the best version of yourself to help world
Individualism People and their achievements are important
Secularism Worldly - enjoy life "here and now" - not as religious as in Middle Ages
Emperor Augustus In charge of entire Roman Empire (27-476 CE)
Emperor Diocletian Divided Roman Empire into East and West (284 CE)
Edict of Milan Christianity accepted (313 CE)
Emperor Constantine Battled to become Roman Ruler, moved eastern capital Byzantium to Constantinople (330 CE)
Emperor Theodosius I Makes Christianity official religion (380 CE)
Christianity appeals Heaven for everyone, social welfare, peace
Christianity issues Corrupt (10% of income - Tithe (tax)), secular (separated from God aka Protestants), internal struggles
1054 Great Schism Split between Western Catholic and Eastern Orthodox
Charlemagne (Father of Europe) Greatest Germanic King - united Rome into Holy Roman Empire. King of Franks, 1st HR Emperor (771-814)
Holy Roman Empire (Germany) Loose confederation of independent states. Goal - promote Christianity (Not controlled by church, not Roman) - weak because of diversity and elected leaders
Habsburgs of Austria Even when HRE not supposed to be hereditary, this family still repeatedly elected
Manor Economic system - relationship between king and serfs (peasants)
Feudalism Economic system - relationship between kings, clergy, soldiers, and serfs
Hundred Year's War War between Great Britain and France - drains resources and human lives
Black Plague Large pandemic in Europe (20-25M deaths, 1/3 of pop)
Johannes Gutenberg Improves printing press - less expensive - more students bring it to the north as education improves
Italian Renaissance Pagan (polytheistic), self-centered (improve self to improve society)
Northern Renaissance Religious (monotheistic), reformist (improve society to improve self)
Sir Thomas More Author of Utopia - book explaining how to reform society
Desiderius Erasmus Author of Praise of Folly - people should follow simple Christian values (interpret Jesus's life how you want)
3 Elements of State Legitimacy (right to exist, has authority), Sovereignty (all states are equal and have equal power toward one another), Territory (has bounded land)
Leader of a State State independent of leader, leader is state's servant
The Prince by Machiavelli Book arguing for more power towards the king in order for the state to have more power
Charles VII (Louis XI's father) French King - takes power away from clergy and created a royal army
Louis XI (Spider King) French King - Weakens nobility's power, improves middle-class relations by taxing nobility and poor, creates modern-day French borders
Henry VII (Tudor) English King - takes power away from clergy, improves middle-class relations, does not involve himself with foreign issues
Magna Carta (Great Charter) Treaty saying English King has to obey same laws as everyone else
War of the Roses Long civil war about dynasty - who's next in line
Mongol Yoke Time period after Principality of Kiev (controlled by Orthodox Church) where Mongols ruled Russia
Third Rome Nickname for Moscow after Mongols were driven out - its leaders had more power than those in the rest of Europe
Renaissance art Focused on artist's skill, experimentation, and creativity. Artists had a lot of wealth - considered powerful and had "divine spark"
Renaissance families Men married old, women married young (to have kids). Common for widows to remarry if capable of giving birth. Households consisted of up to 20 people.
Charter of Lorries Granted by Louis VII - city with important liberties (no tax for food, no military, no forced work, can stay there if no exile for a year, no duty paid on his own things)
Jacquerie rebellion France 1358 - peasants raped, looted, burned
Lolland rebellion John Ball (leader) and many low/middle class rebelled since urban workers received low pay and not able to compete with other shops
Guilds Medieval organizations that controlled productivity, restricted # of journeymen who became masters, ensured economic security
France Fast 100 Years War recovery, strengthens king's power
England Slow 100 Years War recovery, loses royal power but improves it by winning War of Roses
Russia Leaders (after Mongol Yoke) had more power than the rest of the European countries
Created by: uriel_magana